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Romantic Era


In Spain the Inquisition had been ended by the Revolution in 1820 that had overthrown King Ferdinand VII, but with Ferdinand's return it is revived.  A Jew is burned at the stake, also a Spanish Quaker schoolmaster who replaced "Hail Mary" with "Praise be to God" in school prayer. It has been described as the last of such executions 
 •  Fenimore Cooper (US) - The Last of the Mohicans

Britain, Russia and France break with Austria regarding the Greek war of independence – Austria still feeling threatened by any revolt against empire while the Russians want to protect their fellow Orthodox Christians. Egypt, a part of the Ottoman Empire, is helping the Turks, but a combined British, French and Russian fleet sink an Egyptian and Turkish fleet at Navarino Bay, on the west coast of the Peloponnesian Peninsula. This weakens Ottoman power in Greece and in Arabia
  •  In Vienna, Austria, over 10,000 mourners attend the burial of Beethoven  •   New York passes a state law emancipating slaves   •  Eugène Delacroix - The Death of Sardanapalus
Black War in Tasmania leads to the near extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines

 In London, parliament extends tolerance, passing the Catholic Emancipation Bill, making it possible for Catholics to hold public office
  •  The Treaty of Adrianople ends war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire grants Greece independence.  Russian authority in Georgia is recognized. The Russians are allowed access through the narrow straits from the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. Autonomy is extended to Serbia and to the Romanians of Moldavia and Walachia, under Russian protection  • 

Scotch tape is invented  •  Mexico abolishes slavery in its territories, hoping to discourage migration into Texas from the United States

 With China's great population growth, unemployment has risen and there has been a shortage of land, creating peasant unrest. China is still the leader in manufacturing output (real rather than per capita), but its share is slipping from 32.8 percent in 1750 to 29.8 percent. India's share since 1750 has fallen from 24.5 percent  to 17.6 percent. Britain, with a fraction of the population of either China or India, has increased its share in this period from 1.9 to 4.3 percent. The US share is 2.4 percent
  •  Businessmen and common people loathe Charles X, who has returned to absolutism, including dissolving parliament. The barricades go up in the streets of Paris. Charles X is frightened and rather than fight goes into exile, back to Britain. Parliament returns, creates a constitutional monarchy and elects a new king, Louis-Philippe  •  1830  The first railway station opens in the United States – in Baltimore Maryland  •  President Andrew Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act, which rips the Cherokee and other eastern tribes from their homes and banishes them to areas west of the Mississippi River  •   A Frenchman patents a sewing machine  •  Simón Bolivar dies disappointed and regretting that Spain did not allow people in its American colonies to develop self-government within a framework of institutions as had Britain with its colonists.

James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances draw a picture of frontier and American Indian life in the early American days which created a unique form of American literature.



Louis Spohr - Die letzten Dinge 

Louis Spohr - Die letzten Dinge,
oratorio in two parts, first performance 1826, Kassel.

Libretto: Friedrich Rochlitz after the Bible

Ouverture (Andante grave - Allegro) 00:00


Chorus & Recitative: Preis und Ehre ihm, der da ist 07:42
Aria & Recitative: Steige herauf, ich will dir zeigen, was geschehen soll! 14:47
Aria & Chorus: Heilg, heilig, heilig ist Gott der Herr 16:21


Recitative: Und siehe, ein Lamm, das war verwundet 18:12
Recitative: Weine nicht! Es hat uberwunden der Lowe 19:10
Recitative: Und die Altesten fielen nieder vor dem Lamm 20:06
Soprano & Chorus: Das Lamm, der erwurget ist, ist wurdig zu nehmen Kraft 20.26
Recitative: Und alle Kreatur, die im Himmel ist 22:35
Tenor & Chorus: Betet an! 22:54
Recitative: Und siehe, eine grosse Schar 26:15
Soli & Chorus: Heil! Dem Erbarmer Heil 29:10

Part II

Sinfonia 33:31


Arioso & Recitative: So spricht der Herr 41:22
Duett: Sei mir nicht schrecklich in der Not 46:47
Chorus: So ihr mich von ganzem Herzen suchet 51:54


Recitative: Die Stunde des Gerichts, sie ist gekommen 54:19
Chorus & Solo: Gefallen ist Babylon, die Grosse 55:13
Soli & Chorus: Selig sind die Toten, die in dem Herren sterben 01:00:56


Recitative: Sieh einem neuen Himmel und eine neue Erde 01:05:09
Recitative & Solo-Quartetto: Und siehe Ich komme bald 01:07:11
Soli & Chorus: Gross und wunderbarlich sind deine Werke 01:08:15

Soprano: Anna Korondi
Alto: Vanessa Barkowski
Tenor: Jörg Dürmüller
Bass: Vladimir Baykov

Chorus: Chorwerk Ruhr

Orchestra: Capella Coloniensis - Conductor: Bruno Weil

Franz Schubert: Symphony no. 9 in C major "Great"
String Quartet no. 15 in G major; 
Piano Sonata no. 18 in G major "Fantasie"

Schubert-Symphony no. 9 in C Major D. 944 "The Great"
London Symphony Orchestra-Josef Krips-conductor-1958-1. Andante-Allegro ma non troppo-2.Andante con moto-3. Scherzo: Allegro vivace-4. Allegro vivace

Schubert - String Quartet No. 15 in G major, D. 887
I. Allegro molto moderato: 00:02

II. Andante un poco moto: 15:14

III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace – Trio: Allegretto: 27:23

IV. Allegro assai: 34:08

Emerson String Quartet

Franz Schubert - Piano Sonata/Fantasie No.18 in G, D.894, Op.78
Sviatoslav Richter (1915-1997), piano

00:00 1st movement-Fantasie - Part1: exposition-beginning
07:40 1st movement-Fantasie - Part1: exposition-reprise
14:58 1st movement-Fantasie - Part2: development, recapitulation
25:31 2nd movement-Andante
33:17 3rd movement-Menuetto with Trio
37:40 4rd movement-Allegretto-First time
45:18 Clapping
46:51 4rd movement-Allegretto-Encore (bonus)
54:32 Clapping

Ludwig van Beethoven - String Quartet No. 14 in C-sharp minor, Op. 131

Ludwig van Beethoven - String Quartet No. 14 in C sharp minor, Op. 131
- Performers: Takács Quartet, 2003 

00:00 - 1. Adagio ma non troppo e molto espressivo 
08:03 - 2. Allegro molto vivace 
11:00 - 3. Allegro moderato 
11:43 - 4. Andante ma non troppo e molto cantabile 
25:10 - 5. Presto 
30:12 - 6. Adagio quasi un poco andante 
32:30 - 7. Allegro 

Franz Liszt – Étude en douze exercices

Franz Liszt - Étude en 12 Exercices S. 136 
• Allegro con fuoco   0:00
• Allegro non molto   0:59
• Allegro sempre legato   2:14
• Allegretto   4:57
• Moderato   5:53
• Molto agitato   8:17
• Allegretto con molta espressione   9:24
• Allegro con spirito   11:05
• Allegro grazioso   12:55
• Moderato   16:56
• Allegro grazioso   18:47
• Allegro non troppo   21:39

Amaral Vieira, piano 

Felix Mendelssohn"A Midsummer Night's Dream" in E major for orchestra, op. 21

Felix Mendelssohn composed music for William Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream. First in 1826, near the start of his career, he wrote a concert overture (Op. 21). Later, in 1842, only a few years before his death, he wrote incidental music (Op. 61) for a production of the play, into which he incorporated the existing Overture. The incidental music includes the world-famous Wedding March. The German title reads Ein Sommernachtstraum.

Mendelssohn: A Midsummer Night's Dream,
Op. 21 & 61 

1. 1. Overture 
2. Scherzo
3. Intermezzo
4. Nocturne
5. Wedding March
Published on May 26, 2013
Mecsek Women's Choir
Chorus master: Attila Kertész
Johanna Nagy, Lemja Amer
Pannon Philharmonic Orchestra
András Vass
Kodály Centre, Pécs, 2013

Ferdinand Hérold - Almédon ou le monde renversé (Marie)

Ferdinand Hérold - Almédon ou le monde renversé (Marie)

I. Ouverture
II. Couplets de Colin et Lisette (Barcarolle) - 00:07:15
III. Romance d'Adolphe (Je pars demain) - 00:11:42
IV. Air d'Emilie - 00:13:56
V. Entr'acte - 00:19:04
VI. Duo d'Emilie et de Henri - 00:20:33
VII. Duo de Marie et d'Adolphe - 00:26:37
VIII. Couplets de  Lubin (Sur la Rivière) - 00:28:41
IX. Air de Suzette - 00:30:21

Marie, opéra-comique en 3 actes, paroles de Planard, représenté pour la première fois à l'Opéra-Comique.

7 January ​
Gaetano DonizettiAlahor in Granata

Alahor in Granata is an opera in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti to an anonymous Italian libretto after Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian's text Gonzalve de Cordoue, ou Granade reconquise (1793). However, it seems that the original basis of the libretto goes back to one by Felice Romani written for Meyerbeer in 1821, which in turn can be traced back through another iteration to begin with the de Florian version.

While Donizetti was spending most of 1825/26 in Palermo as musical director of the Teatro Carolino, Alahor in Granata was written to be presented in December 1825, but the premiere was delayed until 7 January 1826 and given at the Teatro Carolino with critical and popular success.

Gaetano Donizetti – Alahor in Granata
Alahor - Simone Alaimo
Zobeida - Patrizia Pace
Hassem - Vivica Genaux
Alamar - Juan Diego Florez
Sulima - Soraya Chaves
Ismaele - Ruben Amoretti
Conductor - Josep Pons - Orquesta Ciudad de Granada Chorus - Coro del Teatro de la Maestranza de Sevilla

17 January  
Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, composer, diesd, aged 20

12 April 
Carl Maria von WeberOberon, King of the Fairies (first performed in London, libretto by James Robinson Planche).

30 May
Vincenzo BelliniBianca e Fernando

Bianca e Fernando (Bianca and Fernando) is an opera in two acts. The original version of this opera was presented as Bianca e Gernando and was set to a libretto by Domenico Gilardoni, based on Bianca e Fernando alla tomba di Carlo IV, duca di Agrigento (Bianca and Ferdinand at the Tomb of Charles IV, Duke of Agrigento), a play by Carlo Roti which is set in Sicily.

Vincenzo Bellini - Bianca e Fernando 
Bianca: Yasuko Hayashi -
Fernando: Antonio Savastano -
Filippo: Enrico Fissore
Carlo: Mario Macchi -
Viscardo: Pietro Tarantino -
Eloisa: Maria Gabriella Onesti
Clemente: Eftimios Michalopoulos -
Uggero: Ignazio del Monaco
Orchestra e coro della Rai di Torino
Direttore Gabriele Ferro, 1976

Place: Agrigento
Late 14th/15th century

The ambitious Filippo has secretly imprisoned Carlo, Duke of Agrigento and usurped his throne. Carlo's son Fernando was accordingly forced into exile although he was still only a child. Carlo's daughter, Bianca, the widow of the Duke of Messina, unaware of Filippo's plots agrees to become his wife. Fernando, now an adult, returns home with a desire to avenge his father, who he thinks is dead.

Act 1
Using a false name and pretending to be a soldier of fortune, Fernando comes to the palace of Agrigento and offers his services to the new Duke. He convinces Viscardo, a follower of Filippo, that he saw Fernando die and Filippo receives this news with joy. He hires Fernando without hesitation, thinking of entrusting the task of killing Carlo to him.

Bianca comes to the palace to meet her prospective bridegroom. Here she meets Fernando, but after so many years, she does not recognize him. Indeed, she suspects him. Fernando, for his part, is convinced that his sister is an accomplice of the usurper.

Act 2
Filippo orders Fernando go to the prison to kill Carlo. At the same time, he announces his approaching wedding to Bianca. The old and trusted henchman of Fernando, Clemente, informs Bianca that Fernando wants to see her and brother and sister finally meet face to face. But when they recognize each other, Fernando tells Bianca of Filippo's plots. Together, they go to the prison to free Carlo, followed by Fernando's companions in arms. Filippo also arrives at the palace, bringing with him Bianca's infant son whom he threatens to kill if Fernando will not give himself up. But the trusty Clemente disarms him, and the tyrant is finally ousted.

5 June 
Carl Maria von Weber, composer, dies, aged 40

22 June
Gioacchino RossiniAdina

Adina is an operatic farsa in one act by Gioachino Rossini with a libretto by Marchese Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini. The première took place on 22 June 1826 at the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, Lisbon.

Rossini  - "Adina"
Direttore: Yves Abel -
Adina: Alexandrina Pendatchasnka -
Califfo: Pietro Spagnoli -
Selimo: Antonino Siragusa -
Mustafà: Roberto De Candia -
Alì: Massimo Giordano - Pesaro, 1999 

6 July
Gaetano DonizettiElvida

Elvida is a melodramma or opera in one act by Gaetano Donizetti. Giovanni Schmidt wrote the Italian libretto. 

Gaetano Donizetti - Elvida
Elvida - Annick Massis
Amur - Pietro Spagnoli
Alfonso - Bruce Ford
Zeidar - Jennifer Larmore
Ramiro - Ashley Catling
Zulma - Anne-Marie Gibbons

London Philharmonic Orchestra - Antonello Allemandi

Place: A fortified town in the Emirate of Granada.
Time: The late fifteenth century.
Scene 1
During the struggle for control of southern Spain, Elvida, a noble Castilian lady, has been captured by the Moors. For two months she has been held prisoner by Amur in one of the last remaining Moorish strongholds. However, Spanish troops led by Elvida’s fiancé, Alfonso, are now advancing on the town.

Amur wants to have Elvida put to death, rather than allow her to be saved by Alfonso’s troops. However, Amur’s son, Zeidar, has fallen in love with their beautiful captive and begs his father to give her up to the approaching Spanish, if only to save the town from destruction. Zeidar pleads with Elvida to marry him, but she contemptuously rejects both his advances and his father’s threats. The Moors murdered her father, and Elvida longs for retribution. She is led away to a hidden dungeon.

The Castilian army is now at the gates of the town, Amur recognizes that further resistance is hopeless, but knowing that Moorish reinforcements are close at hand, he is determined to make his escape through a secret passage, taking Zeidar with him.

Scene 2
Alfonso enters in triumph at the head of his troops. Although he is disappointed that Amur and Zeidar have apparently escaped, he is more concerned for the safety of Elvida. One of Amur’s slaves offers to lead him to the cavern where Elvida is being held captive.

Scene 3
Amur intends to use Elvira as a hostage to aid his escape with Zeidar. The two men enter the cavern in which she is imprisoned and try to force her to come with them. Elvida is defiant, and before they can drag her away, Spanish troops burst in. Amur draws his dagger with the intention of killing Elvida, but Zeidar seizes his arm and the troops are able to overpower him.

Amur curses his son for his betrayal, and at that moment word arrives that the Moorish reinforcements have been routed. In a magnanimous gesture Alfonso grants Zeidar his freedom and agrees to spare Amur’s life. There is general rejoicing as Alfonso announces his marriage to Elvida will take place on the following morning.

9 October
Gioacchino RossiniLe Siege de Corinte

Le siège de Corinthe (The Siege of Corinth) is an opera in three acts by Gioachino Rossini set to a French libretto by Luigi Balocchi and Alexandre Soumet.

Rossini - L'Assedio di Corintoi - 1966

Cleomene - Angelo Lo Forese ( Loforese )
Pamira - Marcella De Osma
Neocle - Franco Bonisolli
Maometto secondo - Mario Petri
Jero - Franco Ventriglia

Conductor - Nicola Rescigno
Orchestra - Mailand RAI

31 October 
Muzio Clementi – Complete Gradus ad Parnassum (100 pieces) appears for the first time, simultaneously in Paris, Leipzig and London on October 31.

Muzio Clementi - Suite de cinq pièces Op.44 n.37-41 (Gradus ad Parnassum, 1817/1826)

I. Preludio: Allegro (0:01) 
II. Allegro moderato (1:46)
III. Scena patetica: Adagio con grand'espressione (10:01)
IV. Fuga: Tempo moderato (22:09)
V. Finale: Allegro vivace (26:32)

Pianoforte: Alessandro Marangoni 

Clementi – 7 Studi dal “Gradus ad Parnassum” op. 44:
33. Canone (Moderato), in do maggiore
40. Fuga (Tempo moderato), in fa maggiore (02:08)
43. Fuga (Moderato), in fa minore (05:54)
45. Introduzione e fuga (Andante malinconico - Allegro moderato), in do minore (10:15)
54. Fuga a due soggetti (Tempo giusto), in re minore (16:34)
56. Adagio patetico, in si bemolle minore (20:14)
57. Fuga (Moderato), in si bemolle maggiore (21:54)

Vincenzo Vitale, piano

Clementi – 6 Studi dal “Gradus ad Parnassum” op. 44

1. Veloce, in do maggiore, op. 44 n. 16
2- Veloce, in do maggiore, op. 44 n. 17 (01:40)
3. Allegro, in re maggiore, op. 44 n. 20 (03:20)
4. Presto, in fa diesis, op. 44 n. 24 (04:30)
5. Allegro, in do maggiore op. 44 n. 32 (06:37)
6. Presto ma non troppo, in la maggiore, op. 44 n. 36 (08:40)

Vincenzo Balzani, pianoforte

Clementi– 4 Studi dal “Gradus ad Parnassum” op. 44
1. Studio op. 44 n. 2, Allegrissimo in fa maggiore
2. Studio op. 44 n. 3, Vivacissimo in fa maggiore (01:24)
3. Studio op. 44 n. 5, Andante, quasi allegretto, con espressione, in si bemolle maggiore (02:20)
4. Studio op. 44 n. 12, Allegro (Preludio) in do maggiore (04:26)

Vincenzo Balzani, pianoforte



The French composer Hector Berlioz made four attempts at winning the Prix de Rome music prize, finally succeeding in 1830.

Hector Berlioz La Mort d'Orphée
La Mort d'Orphée
(The Death of Orpheus) (1827), text by Berton. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Berlioz's result: failed.

Hector Berlioz Herminie
(Erminia) (1828), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: second prize.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Cléopâtre 
Cléopâtre (Cleopatra) (1829), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: no first prize awarded.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Sardanapale
(Sardanapalus) (1830), text by Jean François Gail. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Result: joint first prize.

Berlioz - La mort d’Orphée (H. 25)
Daniel Galvez-Vallejo -tenor
Jean-Claude Casadesus -conductro
Lille National Orchestra

Frederic Chopin – Variations on "Là ci darem la mano" Op. 2


Chopin - Variations in B-flat on "Là ci darem la mano" from Mozart's "Don Giovanni" for piano and orchestra, Op. 2
London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Eliahu Inbal.
Claudio Arrau (piano)

I. Introduction: Largo - Poco piu mosso
II. Thema: Allegretto
III. Variation 1: Brillante
IV. Variation 2: Veloce, ma accuratamente
V. Variation 3: Sempre sostenuto
VI. Variation 4: Con bravura
VII. Variation 5: Adagio
VIII. Coda: Alla Polacca

13 May
Gaetano Donizetti Gli esiliati in Siberia

Otto mesi in due ore ossia Gli esiliati in Siberia (Eight Months in Two Hours or The Exiles in Siberia) is an opera in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti to a libretto by Domenico Gilardoni.

Gaetano Donizetti - Gli esiliati in Siberia 1_2
B. Hahn, L. Canonici, A. Antoniozzi, V. Ivanov
Orchestre National de Montpellier Languedouc-Roussillon, direzione: Enrique Diemecke, 1999 

Gaetano Donizetti - Gli esiliati in Siberia 2_2

Act 1 
Saimika, Siberia

Having been wrongly exiled, Count Stanislao Potoski, his wife, Countess Fedora, and their daughter, Elisabetta, are living in a ramshackle dwelling attached to an abbey. Elisabetta vows to undertake an arduous journey on foot to Moscow to seek a pardon from the Tsar.

Act 2 The shores of the Kama River

Elisabetta is befriended by Tartar hordes, who had initially threatened her but were won over by her innocence and virtue. She also meets Ivano, the man responsible for her parents' exile, who is now working as a ferryman at the river. When the river floods, Elisabetta saves herself by making a raft from the wooden tomb of Ivano's dead daughter.

Act 3 A grand chamber in the Kremlin

The Grand Marshal, who is also partly responsible for the Potoski family's exile, tries to cause trouble for Elisabetta. Nevertheless, she manages to reach the Tsar, who in the meantime has received a letter from his messenger Michele (a friend of Elisabetta and the son of her nurse) explaining the injustice of their exile. The Tsar pardons the whole family who are then reunited in Moscow.

20 August  
Josef Strauss
, composer, born.

Franz Schubert:
Winterreise (song cycle)
Piano Trio No. 1
Piano Trio No. 2
Impromptus, D.899 and D.935
Phantasie for violin and piano in C major, D.934

Franz Schubert - Winterreise
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone), Gerald Moore (piano), 1962

Winterreise (Winter Journey), song cycle for voice and piano, D. 911 (published as Op. 89 in 1828), a setting of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller, written in 1827.

00:00:00 - 01. Gute Nacht
00:05:30 - 02. Die Wetterfahne
00:07:13 - 03. Gefror'ne Tränen
00:09:46 - 04. Erstarrung
00:12:42 - 05. Der Lindenbaum
00:17:15 - 06. Wasserflut
00:21:33 - 07. Auf dem Flusse
00:25:16 - 08. Rückblick
00:27:44 - 09. Irrlicht
00:30:17 - 10. Rast
00:33:18 - 11. Frühlingstraum
00:37:15 - 12. Einsamkeit
00:39:57 - 13. Die Post
00:42:14 - 14. Der greise Kopf
00:45:09 - 15. Die Krähe
00:47:14 - 16. Letzte Hoffnung
00:49:35 - 17. Im Dorfe
00:52:49 - 18. Der stürmische Morgen
00:53:42 - 19. Täuschung
00:55:14 - 20. Der Wegweiser
00:59:23 - 21. Das Wirtshaus
01:04:01 - 22. Mut!
01:05:26 - 23. Die Nebensonnen
01:08:07 - 24. Der Leiermann

Schubert - Piano Trio in B-flat major, D.898 (Op.99)

I.   Allegro moderato
II.  Andante un poco mosso (11:51)
III. Scherzo: Allegro (22:24)
IV. Rondo: Allegro vivace (28:48)

Eugen Istomin, piano
Isac Stern, violin
Leonard Rose, cello

recorded in 1964

Schubert - Piano Trio No. 2 in E-flat major, D. 929
Jean-Claude Pennetier (piano), Régis Pasquier (violin), Roland Pidoux (cello).

I. Allegro
II. Andante con moto
III. Scherzando
IV. Allegro moderato

Franz Schubert - 4 Impromptus D.899, Op.90 & 4 Impromptus D.935, Op. posth. 142, 1827
Maria João Pires, piano, Lisbon, Palácio de Queluz, 1996

00:00 | 4 Impromptus D.899, Op.90:
00:00 Impromptu No. 1 in C minor. Allegro molto moderato
11:05 Impromptu No. 2 in E flat major. Allegro
15:51 Impromptu No. 3 in G flat major. Andante
21:41 Impromptu No. 4 in A flat major. Allegretto

29:50 | 4 Impromptus D.935, Op. posth. 142:
29:50 Impromptu No. 1 in F minor. Allegro moderato
42:16 Impromptu No. 2 in A flat major. Allegretto
50:17 Impromptu No. 3 in B flat major. Theme. Andante - Variations
1:03:23 Impromptu No. 4 in F minor. Allegro scherzando

Schubert - Fantasie for violin and piano in C major D 934 
Violin: Szymon Goldberg
Piano: Radu Lupu

27 October 
Vincenzo Bellini Il Pirata

Il pirata (The Pirate)
is an opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with an Italian libretto by Felice Romani which was based on a three-act mélodrame from 1826: Bertram, ou le Pirate (Bertram, or The Pirate) by Charles Nodier and Isidore Justin Séverin Taylor). 

Vincenzo Bellini – Il Pirata
Imogene: Montserrat Caballé
Gualtiero: Flaviano Labò
Ernesto: Piero Cappuccilli

Orchestra and Chorus of the Florence May Festival
Conductor: Franco Capuana
Florence, June 13, 1967 (live)

Place: Sicily
Time: 13th century

Act 1
Scene 1: The seashore near Caldora Castle

On a stormy sea-shore, fishermen watch a ship foundering in a huge storm. They help the crew come ashore and among the survivors is Gualtiero, who recognises his old tutor Goffredo, now appearing dressed as a hermit. He explains that he has lost everything. Gualtiero tells him that, in spite of his hatred for his persecutor Ernesto, he drew strength from his continuing love for Imogene. (Aria: Nel furor delle tempeste / "In the fury of the storm / in the slaughter of a pirate's life / that adored image appears in my thoughts"). When the fishermen arrive to inform both men that the noble lady who lives close by is coming to help the shipwrecked men, Gualtiero is urged to hide himself since he will be alone among enemies. He enters Goffredo's hut.

It is Imogene who arrives to offer hospitality to the shipwrecked strangers, but Gualtiero does not reveal himself. She tells her companion Adele that she dreamed that he had been killed by her husband. (Aria: Lo sognai ferito, esangue / "My duty is the compassion / that sends me to the aid of strangers"). From what Itulbo has told her about the pirate ship, she assumes that he is dead. When he comes out of the hut, Gualtiero recognises her, but the hermit makes him re-enter. Imogene is urged to return to the castle, but to herself, she imagines that she sees Gualtiero everywhere she looks. (Aria: Sventurata, anch'io deliro / "Hapless one, I too am delirious / obsessed by a vain love").

Scene 2: The Castle terrace at night

At night, Itulbo warns the strangers not to reveal that they are the pirates who have been pursued by Ernesto. Meanwhile, Imogene is strangely fascinated by the mysterious stranger who enters covered in a cloak. He soon reveals to her who he really is. Gualtiero learns that she had married Ernesto only because he had threatened her father's life. (Extended duet, first Gualtiero: Pietosa al padre! e meco / eri si cruda intanto! / "Pity for your father! But you / were so cruel to me! / And I, deceived and blind, lived, / lived for you alone!"; then Imogene: Ah! qui d'un padre antico / tu non tremasti accanto / "Ah, you never trembled / for an aged father). When Imogene's ladies bring her son into the room, he is angry and almost removes his dagger from his belt, before handing the boy back. He then leaves.

Scene 3: The Castle grounds

Ernesto and his men celebrate victory over the pirates (Sì, vincemmo, e il pregio io sento / "Yes, we conquered and I feel proud of such a noble victory"), but he is annoyed that Imogene is not celebrating too. He asks her if she has found out who the shipwrecked men are, telling her that he expects to question the hermit and the man who is described by the hermit as their leader: Itulbo. Itulbo describes himself as being from Liguria and, upon questioning him, Ernesto recognises by his dress and accent that he is not from the local area. He continues to press Itulbo on the whereabouts of Gualtiero, knowing that pirates have come from Ligurian shores; he is reluctant to accept the group until they can provide greater proof of who they are. Meanwhile, they must remain as prisoners. Beginning with a duet, which initially includes Gualtiero, who declares his readiness to fight, Ernesto somewhat suspicious, Imogene and Adele in anguish, then the hermit (Goffredo) and the women, it extends to include all the principals who express their conflicting emotions, though the hermit manages to restrain Gualtiero from giving his identity away.

Act 2
Scene 1: The entrance to Imogene's apartments

Adele tells Imogene that Gualtiero wishes to see her before he leaves. She is reluctant, but she recognises that she must do it. As she is about to leave, Ernesto arrives and accuses Imogene of being unfaithful to him: (Ernesto, aria: Arresta / Ognor mi fuggi / "Stay! You continually avoid me! Now the time has come for me to have you at my side"; then duet.) She defends herself by saying that her continuing love for Gualtiero is based solely on her remembrance of their past encounters. Ernesto is inclined to take her word for it, but, when a message is delivered in which he is told that Gualtiero is being sheltered in his own castle, he is consumed by rage, demands to know where his enemy is, and then storms out. Imogene follows.

Scene 2: The Castle terrace
Gualtiero and Itulbo meet on the terrace at daybreak, the latter encouraging him to flee with all his men. But Gualtiero stands firm and, as Itulbo leaves, Imogene comes onto the terrace. She urges him to be brief, to leave immediately, but he tries to comfort her before they part (Aria: Per noi tranquillo un porto / l'immenso mare avrà / "For us the vast sea / will have a calm port") at the same time as he urges her to come with him to the safety of one of his two ships which have arrived. But she tries to leave, encouraging him to forgive and forget. Their acceptance of the situation alternates with passionate declarations of love, and Ernesto, arriving, conceals himself and overhears the end of their duet. As the couple part, Ernesto reveals himself, but Imogene rushes between them, trying to convince Gualtiero to flee. Defiant, he ignores her, proclaiming to Ernesto that his thirst for his blood has not diminished over ten years. The two men demand blood and, in a trio finale as they exit, they continue in this vein while Imogene pleads that they kill her. The two men depart to fight, and Imogene follows.

Scene 3: The courtyard of the Castle

A funeral march is heard as Ernesto's knights enter followed by Adele and the ladies. All grieve over Ernesto's death at the hands of "a traitor, a vile pirate". Gualtiero, to the amazement of Ernesto's retainers, gives himself up to the knights and, as he is taken away, he prays that Imogene may forgive him (Tu vedrai la sventurata / "You will see the unhappy lady / whom I caused so many tears / and tell her if I wronged her / I also knew how to avenge her"). She appears in a state of anguish and sees visions of her dead husband and her son (Col sorriso d'innocenza ... Oh sole, ti vela di tenebre oscure / "With the smile of innocence / with the glance of love / pray speak to your father of clemency and pardon"). Meanwhile, from the Council chamber, the Knights condemn Gualtiero to death and, as the scaffold is erected, Imogene is raving: (Finale: Oh, sole! ti vela / "Oh sun, veil yourself / in darkest gloom / hide the cruel axe / from my sight"). Her ladies lead Imogene from the courtyard.

26 March  
Ludwig van Beethoven
, composer, dies aged 57

19 November
Giovanni PaciniMargherita regina d'Inghilterra

Margherita, regina d'Inghilterra; dramma per musica, da rappresentarsi nel Real Teatro di S. Carlo, a' 19. novembre 1827, ricorrendo il fausto giorno onomastico di Sua Maestà Maria Isabella, regina del regno delle due Sicilie.

Nelly Miricioiu sings the final aria of Maria Tudor in Maria Regina d'Inghilterra by Pacini

Josef Strauss

Josef Strauss

Josef Strauss (20 August 1827 – 22 July 1870) was an Austrian composer.

He was born in Mariahilf (now Vienna), the son of Johann Strauss I and Maria Anna Streim, and brother of Johann Strauss II and Eduard Strauss. His father wanted him to choose a career in the Austrian Habsburg military. He studied music with Franz Dolleschal and learned to play the violin with Franz Anton Ries.


He received training as an engineer, and worked for the city of Vienna as an engineer and designer. He designed a horse-drawn revolving brush street-sweeping vehicle and published two textbooks on mathematical subjects. Strauss had talents as an artist, painter, poet, dramatist, singer, composer and inventor.
He joined the family orchestra, along with his brothers, Johann Strauss II and Eduard Strauss in the 1850s. His first published work was called "Die Ersten und Letzten" (The First and the Last). When Johann became seriously ill in 1853 Josef led the orchestra for a while. The waltz-loving Viennese were appreciative of his early compositions so he decided to continue in the family tradition of composing dance music. He was known as 'Pepi' by his family and close friends, and Johann once said of him: "Pepi is the more gifted of us two; I am merely the more popular..."
Josef Strauss married Caroline Pruckmayer at the church of St. Johann Nepomuk in Vienna on 8 June 1857, and had one daughter, Karolina Anna, who was born on March 27, 1858.
Josef Strauss wrote 283 opus numbers. He wrote many waltzes, including: Sphären-Klänge (Music of the Spheres), Delirien (Deliriums), Transaktionen (Transactions), Mein Lebenslauf ist Lieb' und Lust (My Character is Love and Joy), and Dorfschwalben aus Österreich (Village Swallows from Austria), polkas, most famously the Pizzicato Polka (It) with his brother Johann, quadrilles, and other dance music. The waltz The Mysterious Powers of Magnetism (Dynamiden) with the use of minor keys showed a quality that distinguished his waltzes from those of his more popular elder brother. The polka-mazurka shows influence by Strauss, where he wrote many examples like Die Emancipierte and Die Libelle.
Josef Strauss was sickly most of his life. He suffered fainting spells and intense headaches. During a tour in 1870, he fell unconscious from the conductor's podium in Warsaw, while conducting his 'Musical Potpourri', and hit his head. His wife brought him back home to Vienna, to the Hirschenhaus, where he died on 22 July 1870. A final diagnosis only reported a decomposition of blood. Originally buried in the St. Marx Cemetery, Strauss was later exhumed and reburied in the Vienna Central Cemetery, alongside his mother Anna.

Josef Strauss - Herbstrosen 

Josef Strauss - Dorfschwalben aus Österreich - Walzer, op. 164

Josef Strauss - Mein Lebenslauf ist Lieb' und Lust - Walzer, op. 263

Josef Strauss - Dynamiden, Walzer, Op. 173
New Year's Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic 2014
Conductor: Daniel Barenboim

Josef Strauss "Delirien Walz"

Joseph Strauss - Sphärenklänge (Walzer, op. 235)



Franz Schubert:
Der Hirt auf dem Felsen; 

Fantasia in F minor for piano four-hands;
Mass no. 6 in E-flat major;
String Quintet in C major, D. 956;
Last three piano sonatas

Schubert - Der Hirt auf dem Felsen
Barbara Bonney, soprano
Sharon Kam, clarinette
Geoffrey Parsons, piano

Schubert - Fantasy in F minor for Piano Four Hands, D940
Maria Joāo Pires & Ricardo Castro

Franz Schubert - Mass No. 6 in E flat major, D 950
Live recording from the Münster in Zwiefalten, during the Festival "Herbstliche Musiktage" in Bad Urach, 1997.

NDR Symphony Orchestra
Sylvain Cambreling - conductor
Juliane Banse - soprano
Hermine May - altus
Deon van der Walt - tenor
Jonas Kaufmann - tenor
Hermann Prey - Bass

Franz Schubert - Mass No. 6 in E flat major, D 950

0:51 I. Kyrie
6:57 II. Gloria
19:48 III. Credo
34:57 IV. Sanctus
38:30 V. Benedictus
43:45 VI. Agnus Dei

Franz Schubert - "Schwanengesang"  D 957
Christian Gerhaher--Baritone
Gerold Huber--Piano

Schubert - Quintet in C Major op. 163, D. 956 
Isaac Stern: violin-
Alexander Schneider: violin-
Milton Katims: alto-
Pablo Casals: cello-
Paul Tortelier: cello-

Schubert - Piano Sonatas: D. 958, 959 and 960
Pianist: Andreas Staier

Piano Sonata No. 19 in C minor, D. 958
0:00 I. Allegro.
11:08 II. Adagio.
19:51 III. Menuetto: Allegro – Trio.
22:49 IV. Allegro.

Piano Sonata No. 20 in A major, D. 959
32:32 I. Allegro
48:51 II. Andantino
57:09 III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace – Trio: Un poco più lento.
1:01:41 IV. Rondo: Allegretto – Presto

Piano Sonata No. 21 in B flat major, D. 960
1:14:25 I. Molto moderato. 
1:36:24 II. Andante sostenuto. 
1:46:12 III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace con delicatezza – Trio.
1:50:30 IV. Allegro ma non troppo – Presto.

Hector BerliozWaverly Overture, Op. 1

Hector Berlioz - Waverly Overture Op.1 
Orquesta Sinfónica de Londres Director: Sir Colin Davis.

The French composer Hector Berlioz made four attempts at winning the Prix de Rome music prize, finally succeeding in 1830.

Hector Berlioz La Mort d'Orphée
La Mort d'Orphée
(The Death of Orpheus) (1827), text by Berton. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Berlioz's result: failed.

Hector Berlioz Herminie
(Erminia) (1828), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: second prize.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Cléopâtre 
Cléopâtre (Cleopatra) (1829), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: no first prize awarded.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Sardanapale
(Sardanapalus) (1830), text by Jean François Gail. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Result: joint first prize.

Hector Berlioz - Herminie
I. Quel trouble te poursuit, malheureuse 00:00
II. Ah! Si de la tendresse où mon cœur 04:00
III. Que dis-je? òu s'égarent mes vœux? 08:19
IV. Arrête! Cher Tancrède 09:43
V. Que Clorinde est heureuse 12:57
VI. Venez, venez, terribles armes! 15:04
VII. ieu des chrétiens, toi que j'ignore 17:08
VIII. Venez, venez, terribles armes! 20:05

Janet Baker -mezzosoprano
Sir Colin Davis -conductor - London Symphony Orchestra

29 February 
Daniel AuberLa muette de Portici

La muette de Portici (The Dumb Girl of Portici, or The Mute Girl of Portici),
also called Masaniello in some versions, is an opera in five acts by Daniel Auber, with a libretto by Germain Delavigne, revised by Eugène Scribe.

Masaniello, a Neapolitan fisherman    tenor 
Alphonse, son of the Count of Arcos, Viceroy of Naples    tenor   
Elvire, fiancée of Alphonse    soprano 
Fenella, sister of Masaniello    dancer 
Pietro, friend of Masaniello    bass  
Borella, friend of Masaniello    bass 
Moreno, friend of Masaniello    bass  
Lorenzo, confidant of Alphonse    tenor  
Selva, officer of the Viceroy    bass 
Lady-in-waiting to Elvire    soprano  
The opera is loosely based on the historical uprising of Masaniello against Spanish rule in Naples in 1647. The character of Fenella, the opera's eponymous heroine, was borrowed from Walter Scott's Peveril of the Peak, which features a deaf and dumb dwarf of the same name.

Act I
The square before a chapel

We witness the wedding of Alfonso, son of the Viceroy of Naples, with the Spanish Princess Elvira. Alfonso, who has seduced Fenella, the Neapolitan Masaniello's mute sister and abandoned her, is tormented by doubts and remorse, fearing that she has committed suicide. During the festival Fenella rushes in to seek protection from the Viceroy, who has kept her a prisoner for the past month. She has escaped from her prison and narrates the story of her seduction by gestures, showing a scarf which her lover gave her. Elvira promises to protect her and proceeds to the altar, Fenella vainly trying to follow. In the chapel Fenella recognizes her seducer in the bridegroom of the Princess. When the newly married couple come out of the church, Elvira presents Fenella to her husband and discovers from the mute girl's gestures, that he was her faithless lover. Fenella flees, leaving Alfonso and Elvira in sorrow and despair.

Act II
On the beach

The fishermen, who have been brooding in silence over the tyranny of their foes, begin to assemble. Pietro, Masaniello's friend, has sought for Fenella in vain, but at length she appears of her own accord and confesses her wrongs. Masaniello is infuriated and swears to have revenge, but Fenella, who still loves Alfonso, does not mention his name. Then Masaniello calls the fishermen to arms and they swear perdition to the enemy of their country.

The Naples marketplace

People go to and fro, selling and buying, all the while concealing their purpose under a show of merriment and carelessness. Selva, the officer of the Viceroy's body-guard, from whom Fenella has escaped, discovers her and the attempt to rearrest her is the sign for a general revolt, in which the people are victorious.

Act IV
Masaniello's house

Fenella comes to her brother's dwelling and describes the horrors, which are taking place in the town. The relation fills his noble soul with sorrow and disgust. When Fenella has retired to rest, Pietro enters with comrades and tries to excite Masaniello to further deeds, but he only wants liberty and shrinks from murder and cruelties.

They tell him that Alfonso has escaped and that they are resolved to overtake and kill him. Fenella, who hears all, decides to save her lover. At this moment Alfonso begs at her door for a hiding-place. He enters with Elvira, and Fenella, though at first disposed to avenge herself on her rival, pardons her for Alfonso's sake. Masaniello, reentering, assures the strangers of his protection and even when Pietro denounces Alfonso as the Viceroy's son, he holds his promise sacred. Pietro with his fellow-conspirators leaves him full of rage and hatred.

Meanwhile, the magistrate of the city presents Masaniello with the Royal crown and he is proclaimed King of Naples.

Act V
Before the Viceroy's palace

In a gathering of fishermen, Pietro confides to Moreno that he has administered poison to Masaniello, in order to punish him for his treason, and that the King of one day will soon die. While he speaks, Borella rushes in to tell of a fresh troop of soldiers, marching against the people with Alfonso at their head. Knowing that Masaniello alone can save them, the fishermen entreat him to take the command of them once more and Masaniello, though deadly ill and half bereft of his reason, complies with their request. The combat takes place, while an eruption of Vesuvius is going on. Masaniello falls in the act of saving Elvira's life. On hearing these terrible tidings Fanella rushes to the terrace, from which she leaps into the abyss beneath, while the fugitive noblemen take again possession of the city.

Daniel Francois Asprit Auber - La Muette De Portici

Frédéric Chopin:
Piano Sonata No. 1 Op. 4;
Fantasy on Polish Airs Op. 13;
Rondo à la Krakowiak Op. 14

Chopin - Sonata No. 1 in C minor, Op. 4 
Leif Ove Andsnes

Chopin: Fantasie on polish airs op.13  for piano and orchestra - Idil Biret

Frédéric Chopin - Rondo à la Krakowiak, Op. 14

Pianista: Garrick Ohlsson
Regente: Jerzy Maksymiuk
Orquestra: Sinfônica Nacional da Rádio Polonesa

Ferdinand Hérold La fille mal gardée (ballet)

Herold - la fille mal gardée
Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra - Barry Wordsworth

Louis Spohr – Symphony No. 3, Op. 78

Ludwig Spohr - Symphony Nº3 in C Minor,Op.78
Slovak State Philharmonic Orchestra(Kosice)-Alfred Walter

1 January​
Gaetano DonizettiL'esule di Roma

L'esule di Roma, ossia Il proscritto (The Exile from Rome, or the Proscribed Man) is a melodramma eroico, or heroic opera, in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Domenico Gilardoni wrote the Italian libretto after Luigi Marchionni's Il proscritto romano, in its turn based on Louis-Charles Caigniez and Debotière's Androclès ou Le lion reconnaissant. It premiered on 1 January 1828 at the Teatro San Carlo, Naples.

Donizetti - L'Esule di Roma-Act II-"L'ora estrema"
rgelia, Katia Ricciarelli-
Murena, John-Paul Bogart-
Puplio, John Gibbs-
Settimio, Bruce Brewer-
Leontina, Elaine Hammons-
Cond.- Leslie Head-Queen Elizabeth Hall-London, 1982

Donizetti - L'Esule di Roma-"Ah, che indarno Murena...Ogni tormento"
Argelia, Katia Ricciarelli-
Murena, John-Paul Bogart-
Puplio, John Gibbs-
Settimio, Bruce Brewer-
Leontina, Elaine Hammons-
Cond.- Leslie Head-Queen Elizabeth Hall-London, 1982

Place: Rome   Time: The reign of Tiberius, (14-37 AD)

Act 1
First scene
A public square surrounded by palaces, temples and monuments. The Arch of Triumph. On the right, the vestibulum of Murena's house

Scene 1

The people of Rome hails General Publius, who defeated the enemies of the Emperor Tiberius, but the senator Murena did not appear to participate the general exultation. In fact, he has promised his daughter to Publius Argelia, but when he arrives to claim her, he is forced to admit that the young girl can not be found and he can not fully conceal his concern.

Scene 2

The reason for Argelia's disappearance is revealed: The young tribune Septimus, son of one of Murena's benefactor's, that Murena condemned and exiled for political reasons, has returned secretly, risking certain death, to find Argelia, with whom he is in love (cabaletta Se ad altri il core).

Scene 3

Argelia returns love to him too, and has remained faithful (duet Al fianco mio!).

Scene 4

The two lovers' happiness is short-lived: Lucius comes with his soldiers and arrests Septimius immediately.

Scene 5

Argelia confesses that she loves Publius Septimius: Publius, nobly, promises to help him.

Scene 6

Lucio Murena announces that Septimus is back and that is expected to be judged by the Senate.

Second scene
Inside Murena's house.

Scene 7

Septimus makes one last visit to Argelia and provides written evidence of the conspiracy of which he is victim and of which his own father is the main inspiration. Argelia is terrified by the news. Murena comes in full of pain because he has just condemned Septimus to death. He implores the latter, however, not to tell his daughter about it and in return suggests that to save his honor he's ready to make him escape from Rome along with Argelia. But Septimus refuses and is ready to meet his death. Unusually, Donizetti concludes Act 1 with a remarkable trio (Ei stesso!), Instead of the usual custom; this solution will be taken up by Bellini's Norma at end of Act 1 (1831) and Verdi's Ernani of 1844.

Act 2
First scene
Inside Murena's house.

Scenes 1 and 2:

Murena sinks into madness in a very beautiful scene (aria Entra nel cirfo!, Cabaletta De Stige il flutto), which, on one hand oddly foreshadows his famous "mad scenes" - all for women - the works of the mature Donizetti, and on the other hand is echoed particularly in scenes from the masterpieces of the neoclassical theater, where a male character becomes insane by remorse, among them can mentioned the tragedies Saul (1782) by Vittorio Alfieri and Aristodemo (1786) by Vincenzo Monti. Giovanni Pacini will mention this scene in his Sappho (1840).

Second scene
In prison

Scene 3

In his cell, Septimius awaits his execution. The aria in A major S'io finora, Bell'idol mio is preceded by an instrumental passage for Oboe solo and followed by a cabaletta in the same key, goes down to the trumpet. This scene was added during the performances at La Scala, Milan on 12 July 12, 1828 for the tenor, Winter, but the original music was lost. There are two versions: one written for Rubini, who sang the role at the Teatro San Carlo in the winter of 1828 and the other for Ignazio Pasini on its revival in Bergamo, 1840.

Third scene
The garden of Murena's house.

Scnes 4 and 5

Murena has decided to denounce himself for the sake of saving Septimus. He asks from Argelia the documents that the young man has given her that proves his guilt, but she doesn't want her father to sacrifice his good name, and refuses him with tears. However, Murena's decision is irrevocable, and he goes to the emperor.

Scene 6

Outside, Argelia hears the cries of the crowd that wants to see Septimus taken to his execution. The cantabile of his cavatina Tardi, tardi il piè la volgi is introduced and emphasized quite unusually with an English horn.

Scene 7

The tempo in the middle is introduced by Publius, who announces the good news: Septimus and Murena were both pardoned. Argelia expresses her joy in the final cabaletta Ogni tormento.

29 March
Heinrich Marschner Der Vampyr

Der Vampyr (The Vampire)
is a Romantic opera in two acts by Heinrich Marschner. The German libretto by Wilhelm August Wohlbrück (Marschner's brother-in-law) is based on the play Der Vampir oder die Totenbraut (1821) by Heinrich Ludwig Ritter, which itself was based on the short story The Vampyre (1819) by John Polidori. The first performance took place on 29 March 1828 in Leipzig, where it was a hit.

Place: Scotland      Time: the eighteenth century.
Act 1
Scene 1: After midnight

At a Witches' Sabbath, the Vampire Master tells Lord Ruthven that if he cannot sacrifice three virgin brides within the next 24 hours, he will die. If he can, he will be granted another year of life. The clock strikes one, and Ruthven's first victim, Janthe, arrives for a clandestine meeting, although she is due to marry another on the following day. Berkley, having discovered that she is missing, is searching for her with his men, and Ruthven hides with her in a cave. Her screams alert the search-party, and the body and the Vampire are discovered. Berkley stabs Ruthven and leaves him to die, but he is discovered by Aubry, whose life had been saved by Ruthven in the past. Ruthven pleads with Aubry to drag him into the moonlight so that he can revive, and Aubry, while doing so, realises that Ruthven is a vampire. He has to swear not to reveal this secret for twenty-four hours, or he will become a vampire, too.

Scene 2: Next morning

The 18-year-old Malwina and Aubry, with whom she is in love, are told by Davenaut that she must marry the Earl of Marsden. Aubry recognises the Earl as Lord Ruthven, but is told that he is Ruthven's brother, who has been abroad for some time. Aubry, however, recognises a wound that proves that the Earl really is Ruthven, and is about to denounce him when Ruthven reminds him of his oath and the consequences that will follow if he breaks it. The preparations for Malwina's marriage to "Marsden" begin.

Act 2
Scene 1: Near Marsden castle

Emmy awaits her husband-to-be, George. News of Janthe's gruesome death emerges, and Emmy recounts the legend of the Vampire. Ruthven appears and impresses the villagers with his largesse. He flirts with Emmy until, interrupted by George, he departs - though by then he has extracted a promise from Emmy that she will dance with him later.

Scene 2

Aubry tries to persuade Ruthven to give up his claim to Malwina, but is again reminded of the fate that awaits if he breaks his oath. Ruthven, in a soliloquy, rails against the torments that a Vampire must face.

Scene 3

Aubry is torn by his choice between breaking his oath and saving Malwina, or keeping quiet and losing her to the Vampire. George asks Aubry to use his influence to stop "Marsden" from seducing Emmy. Aubry warns George that he must keep watch over Emmy - but already she is being led into the forest by Ruthven.

Scene 4: Outside the inn

Blunt, Gadshill, Scrop and Green sing of the pleasures of drink. Blunt's wife Suse upbraids the men, to the delight of the onlookers, but a dishevelled George arrives, recounting how he followed Emmy and "Marsden", only to find him standing over her dead body. He had shot the Earl immediately, leaving him to die in the moonlight. The villagers express their sympathy and sorrow.

Scene 5: In Davenaut's castle

Malwina is to be married to "Marsden" before midnight. Aubry warns her that she is in danger, and she puts her trust in God. The wedding-guests arrive, followed by Ruthven, who apologises for his lateness. Malwina and Aubry make one last appeal to Davenaut, who throws Aubry out and orders the wedding to proceed. A thunderstorm approaches, and Aubry returns, having decided to reveal Ruthven's secret at no matter what cost to himself. Suddenly, the clock strikes one, and Aubry, released from his oath, reveals that "Marsden" is Lord Ruthven, the Vampire. Ruthven, having failed in his task, is struck by lightning and descends into Hell. Now Davenaut asks Malwina to forgive him and consents to her marriage to Aubry, to general rejoicing.

Marschner "Der Vampyr" 
Blunt: Andréa Snarski
Diener: Renzo Scorsoni
Edgar Aubry: Josef Protschka
Emmy: Anastasia Tomaszewska Schepis
George Dibdin: Oslavio di Credico
James Gadshill: Carlo di Giacomo
Janthe: Galina Pisarenko
Lord Ruthven: Siegmund Nimsgern
Malwina: Carole Farley
Richard Scrop: Romano Truffelli
Robert Green: Armando Caforio
Sir Berkley: Wolfgang Lenz
Sir Humphrey Davenaut: Martin Egel
Suse: Nucci Condò
Vampyrmeister: Peter Boom
Coro della RAI di Roma - Orchestra della RAI di Roma
Conductor: Günter Neuhold

20 August
Gioacchino RossiniLe comte Ory (Count Ory) first performed in Paris. Libretto by Eugène Scribe and Charles-Gaspard Delestre-Poirson.

6 November
Friedrich KuhlauElverhøj

Elves' Hill (Danish: Elverhøj) is a comedy by Johan Ludvig Heiberg, with overture and incidental music by Friedrich Kuhlau (Op. 100), which is considered the first Danish national play.

Elves' Hill was commissioned by Frederik VI for the wedding of his daughter Vilhelmine Marie and Frederik Carl Christian (later Frederik VII) and premiered on November 6, 1828, 5 days after the wedding.

Friedrich Kuhlau - Elverhøj, Op.100 

Elverhøj, comedy with music in five acts, first performance 6 November 1828, Royal Opera house, Copenhagen.

Libretto: Johan Ludvig Heiberg

Ouverture 00:00
Melodrama 11:18
Romance: Jeg gik mig i lunden (Karen) 14:13
Romance: Jeg lagde mit hoved (Karen) 18:52
Chorus: Hurtig til lystig fest (Peasants) 21:17
Romance: Nu løvsalen skygger (Elisabeth) 22:34
Romance: Der vanker en ridder (Elisabeth) 23:39
Ballade with chorus: Nu lider dagen (Mogens) 26:27
Romance: Dybt i havet (Karen, Mogens) 30:43
Chorus: Nu de lensmanden bort vil drage (Peasants) 33:31
Chorus: Herligt, en sommernat (Hunters) 35:12
Ballet "Agnetes dröm" / "Agnetes dream" 36:52
Menuetto 43:01
Contra dance 47:25
Polonaise 48:48
Children's dance 51:13
Pas de huit 52:51
Ecossaise 55:57
Garland's dance 57:12
Fanfares 58:31
Chorus: Beskærm vor Konge 58:59


Elisabeth: Bodil Gøbel, soprano
Mogens: Mogens Schmidt Johansen, baritone
Karen: Gurli Plesner, alto

Chorus: Danish National Radio Choir 

Orchestra: The Danish National Radio Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: John Frandsen

19 November 
Franz Schubert, composer, dies, aged 31



Frederic Chopin:
Introduction and Polonaise Brillante Op. 3
Piano Trio Op. 8
Étude Op. 10, No. 8
Étude Op. 10, No. 9
Étude Op. 10, No. 10
Étude Op. 10, No. 11

Chopin - Polonaise Brilliante in C Major, Op.3
Lynn Harrell

Chopin - Trio Op. 8
Ivan Penchev - violin, Lora Tchekoratova - piano, Christo Tanev - cello

Chopin - Etudes Op. 10
No. 1 - 00:20
No. 2 - 02:08
No. 3 - 03:53
No. 4 - 08:04
No. 5 - 09:56
No. 6 - 11:35
No. 7 - 15:19
No. 8 - 16:40
No. 9 - 18:59
No. 10 - 21:29
No. 11 - 24:00
No. 12 - 26:34
Boris Berezovsky

Fanny Hensel (Mendelssohn) – Fantasie in g-moll for Cello and Piano 

Fanny Mendelssohn - Fantasie in g-moll for Cello and Piano 

Gioachino Rossini - William Tell Overture
Conducter: Leonard Bernstein
New York Philharmonic Orchestra

Gioachino RossiniWilliam Tell Overture

The French composer Hector Berlioz made four attempts at winning the Prix de Rome music prize, finally succeeding in 1830.

Hector Berlioz La Mort d'Orphée
La Mort d'Orphée
(The Death of Orpheus) (1827), text by Berton. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Berlioz's result: failed.

Hector Berlioz Herminie
(Erminia) (1828), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: second prize.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Cléopâtre 
La Mort de Cléopâtre (Cleopatra) (1829), text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard. For soprano and orchestra. Result: no first prize awarded.

Hector Berlioz La Mort de Sardanapale
(Sardanapalus) (1830), text by Jean François Gail. For tenor, chorus and orchestra. Result: joint first prize.

Hector Berlioz - La mort de Cléopâtre

1. Allegro vivace con impeto - Recitativo
2. Lento cantabile - Recitativo
3. Méditation. Largo misterioso 10:32
4. Allegro assai agitato
5. Moderato. Recitativo misurato 

Jessye Norman, soprano 

Orchestre de Paris - Conducted by Daniel Barenboim

16 May
Vincenzo Bellini - La straniera

La straniera (The Foreign Woman) is an opera in two acts with music by Vincenzo Bellini to an Italian libretto by Felice Romani, based on the novel L'Étrangère by Charles-Victor Prévot. The opera was composed in the autumn of 1828 and premiered on 14 February 1829 at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan.
At the heart of the plot of this opera is a complicated series of historical events beginning at the end of the twelfth century. King Philip Augustus of France (Philip II of France) married the Danish princess Ingeborg in 1193. For unknown reasons, he separated from her the day after the wedding and sought an annulment from Pope Celestine III. Ingeborg, however, insisted that the marriage had been consummated, and that she was his wife and the rightful Queen of France. Philip ultimately obtained an annulment through an assembly of French bishops. He then sought to marry Marguerite, daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, but she was kidnapped on the way to Paris by Thomas I of Savoy, who married her instead. Ultimately, in 1196 Philip married Agnes of Merania ("la straniera"), the daughter of a nobleman, Bertold IV of Dalmatia. Denmark continued to complain about Philip's treatment of Ingeborg and in 1200 Pope Innocent III required Philip to take her back, rendering him essentially a bigamist and subject to excommunication. Agnes died in 1201, however, ending the threat of excommunication.

Vincenzo Bellini - LA STRANIERA

Alaide, the stranger    soprano 
Arturo, Count of Ravenstel    tenor  
Valdeburgo, Baron, secret brother of Alaide    baritone  
Isoletta, fiancée of Arturo    mezzo-soprano 
Osburgo, confidant of Arturo    tenor 
Il signore di Montolino, father of Isoletta    bass  
Il Priore degli Spedalieri    bass

8 May 
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
, pianist and composer, born.

16 May
Vincenzo Bellini - Zaira

Zaira is a tragedia lirica, or tragic opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini set to a libretto by Felice Romani which was based on Voltaire's 1732 tragedy, Zaïre. The story takes place in the time of the Crusades and the opera's plot involves the heroine, Zaira, struggling between her Christian faith and her love for Orosmane, the Muslim Sultan of Jerusalem.

It was Bellini's fifth opera, following quickly after his February 1829 composition and premiere of La straniera at La Scala.

Zaira received its first performance at the "Nuovo Teatro Ducale" in Parma (now the Teatro Regio di Parma) on 16 May 1829. 

Bellini - Zaira 
Catania - 1976 - Daniele Belardinelli -
Renata Scotto (Zaira) -
Giorgio Casellato Lamberti (Corasmino) -
Maria Luisa Nave (Nerestano) -
Luigi Roni (Luigi Roni) -
Mario Rinaudo (Lusignano) -
Giovanna Collica (Fatima)

Place: Jerusalem     
Time: 14th/15th century

Act 1
Scene 1: A gallery leading to the Sultan's harem

There is celebration in the Sultan's court over the impending marriage between Sultan Orosmane and Zaira, the orphaned Christian slave girl. But some of his courtiers resent the marriage, seeing the installation of a Christian woman as sacrilegious. Corasmino, the Sultan's vizier vows to seek a way that this will not happen. Zaida herself is happy, but is reminded by Fatima, another slave girl, that she will have to give up her religion upon marriage, and this causes Zaira to declare that from then on, her religion will be that of love. When the Sultan appears, each expresses their mutual love. The Frenchman Nerestano, a former slave, has returned from France to plead for the release of ten French knights still held captive. Orosmane quickly agrees to release all the captives, who number around one hundred, but insists on retaining Prince Lusignano whom he has condemned to death. Zaira pleads for Lusignano to be released from his death sentence.

Scene 2: A subterranean prison leading to the prisoners' cells

Nerestano and Zaira go down to the prisoners' cells to see the French knights who are to be freed. There they see Prince Lusignano who, upon seeing the couple, actually recognises them as his long-lost children who were taken prisoner during the time he was battling with Syria. Zaira is disturbed by Lusignano's concern that she must renounce her religion and, although called away, pledges to do what she can to avoid taking that action.

Scene 3: The Sultan's harem

The French prisoners are ordered to leave in spite of Corasmino's concern that their poor physical condition might not be well received when they arrive in France. Orosmane allows Zaira to say farewell to Narastano, but he is upset because he misconstrues the relationship between the two, especially when Zaira asks for a short postponement of the marriage. Orosmane declares that he will kill any man who would be his rival in love.

Act 2
Scene 1: Zaira's quarters

Fatima tries to persuade Zaira not to marry Orosmane and not to give up her religion. Zaira pleads for the postponement of her wedding when the sultan enters; at that time, she promises to tell him why. Generously, he agrees.

Scene 2: Near the French knights' cells

Count Lusignano has just died and the sultan allows the French knights to bury him with full Christian honours and then the knights are to be escorted to their ships. However, all are unhappy when they learn that Zaira cannot attended the funeral, since they had planned to abduct her at that time.

Scene 3: The harem

Corasmino has found what he believes to be evidence of Zaira's treachery in appearing to love Nerestano. It has reached him through the interception of a letter from brother to sister demanding that she meet him in the garden that night or he states that he will kill himself. He shares this information with Orosmane who agrees that the message should get through to her. Conflicting emotions overwhelm Zaira when she reads the letter. At that moment, she hears the sounds of a funeral and, looking from the balcony and realising that it is her father who is dead, collapses in a faint, an action which amazes the other slaves and guards.

Scene 4: The harem gardens at night

Humiliated, Orosmane hides in the garden along with Corasmino. They await Zaira's arrival. When she does so, accompanied by Fatima, Nerestano appears and, to him, she renounces her love for Orosmane and expresses her desire to return with him to her homeland. In a fit of jealousy, the sultan rushes at Zaira and fatally stabs her. Dying, she explains her relationship to Nerestano at which the grieving Orosmane, ordering all to leave, stabs himself in the heart.

6 July
Gaetano DonizettiIl castello di Kenilworth

Il castello di Kenilworth  is a melodramma serio  in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Andrea Leone Tottola wrote the Italian libretto after Victor Hugo's play Amy Robsart (1828) and Eugene Scribe's play Leicester, both of which following from Scott's novel Kenilworth (1821). 

3 August 
Gioacchino RossiniGuillaume Tell (William Tell) first performed in Paris. Libretto by Étienne de Jouy, Florent Bis and Armand Marrast.

28 November  
Anton Rubinstein
, pianist, conductor and composer, born.

16 February  
François Joseph Gossec, composer, dies, aged 95 

Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Louis Moreau Gottschalk, (born May 8, 1829, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.—died December 18, 1869, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the first American pianist to achieve international recognition and the first American composer to utilize Latin American and Creole folk themes and rhythms.

Gottschalk was the son of an English-German father and a mother of French ancestry. A child prodigy on several instruments, by the end of his teenage years he had been hailed as an authentic spokesman of the New World.

After playing in concerts throughout Europe, Gottschalk made his New York City debut in 1853. He toured the United States and West Indies and spent several years in Cuba and other areas of the Caribbean. In 1865 he began a South American tour that ended abruptly when he died while conducting at a festival of his works. His compositions include Grande Tarantelle for piano and orchestra, Bamboula, and other piano pieces that unite Creole and Latin American dance idioms with European virtuoso piano styles. He also composed vocal works, many typical of early 19th-century sentimental salon music. Although, like Frédéric Chopin, he was a pianist and composer in the Romantic tradition, Gottschalk lacked Chopin’s harmonic inventiveness and bowed more easily to popular taste. His music underwent a revival in the mid-20th century. His posthumously published book, Notes of a Pianist (1881), contains articles and stories of his travels.

Gottschalk: Music for Piano

00:00 Deuxième Banjo, for piano, Op. 82, D. 16 (RO 24)
04:49 Solitude, for piano, Op. 65, D. 139 (RO 239)
09:00 La Brise, valse de concert for piano ("The Breeze"), D. 23 (RO 30) 
13:05 Souvenir de la Havane, caprice de concert for piano, Op. 39, D. 145 (RO 246)
19:06 Le Chant du martyr, grand caprice religieux for piano, D. 30 (RO 49)
25:20 Manchega, étude de concert for piano, Op. 38, D. 86 (RO 143) 
29:05 La Savane, ballade créole for piano, Op. 3, D. 135 (RO 232) 
35:23 L' Union, paraphrase de concert for piano, Op. 48, D. 156 (RO 269)
Lambert Orkis, 1982

Louis Moreau Gotschalk - Nouvelle Orléans
- A Night in the Tropics
(symphony, 1859)

I. Andante (6/8)
II. Allegro moderato (2/4)

(arr. Gaylord Hatton)

Utah Symphony Orchestra
Maurice Abravanel

Anton Rubinstein

Anton Rubinstein

Anton Rubinstein, in full Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein, (born November 16 [November 28, New Style], 1829, Vykhvatinets, Podolia province, Russia—died November 8 [November 20], 1894, Peterhof), Russian composer and one of the greatest pianists of the 19th century.


In 1835 Rubinstein’s father opened a small factory in Moscow, and there in the same year his brother Nikolay was born. Both boys were taught piano, first by their mother and then by Aleksandr Villoing. Anton gave his first public recital in Moscow in 1839, and the following year Villoing took him abroad for a three-year concert tour. He appeared in Paris, London, the Netherlands, Germany, and Sweden, attracting the attention of Chopin and Liszt. From 1844 to 1846 he and his brother studied music theory in Berlin. Anton spent two more years abroad alone, mainly in Vienna, studying the piano and composition. On his return to Russia in 1848 he settled in St. Petersburg, where in 1852 his first opera, Dmitry Donskoy, was produced; Fomka durachok (Fomka the Fool) and Sibirskiye okhotniki (The Siberian Hunters) were introduced in St. Petersburg in 1853. The years 1854 to 1958 he spent abroad.

Under the patronage of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, Rubinstein in 1859 founded the Russian Music Society and later became conductor of its orchestral concerts. In 1862 he founded and became the director of the Imperial (or St. Petersburg) Conservatory, and in 1866 his brother founded the Moscow Conservatory, where Nikolay remained as director until his death in 1881. Anton Rubinstein resigned his directorship of the Imperial Conservatory in 1867 but resumed it in 1887 and continued to hold the post until 1891. From 1871 to 1872 he directed the Vienna Philharmonic concerts, and in 1872 he toured the United States.

Rubenstein’s operas include Demon (first performed 1875; The Demon), Der Makkabäer (first performed 1875; The Maccabees), and Kupets Kalashnikov (first performed 1880; The Merchant Kalashnikov). He wrote six symphonies, the biblical opera Der Turm zu Babel (first performed 1870; The Tower of Babel), five piano concerti, songs, piano pieces, and numerous chamber works.

In 1889 Rubinstein published an autobiography, translated by Aline Delano as Autobiography of Anton Rubinstein (1890; reprinted 1988).

Portrait of Rubinstein by Ilya Repin

Anton Rubinstein - Persian Love Songs Complete Cycle Op.34
1. Suleika
2. Like the sun for the heavens
3. When I see your little feet
4. The rose has told me, lamenting
5. To one who want to live with ease
6. We're lead down the same path
7. Take off your veil
8. The unopened flower
9. The waves of turbulent Kurag
10. The sun over the sea
11. Do not be cross
12. Creator ordered to the sun
Boris Gmyrya

Anton Rubinstein - Symphony No. 1 Op. 40 (1850)

Slovak State Philharmonic Orchestra Kosice
conducted by Robert Stankovsky, 1989

Anton Rubinstein - Symphony No. 2 "Ocean" (1851)

I. Allegro Maestoso - 00:00
II. Adagio Non Tanto - 15:58
III. Allegro - 26:51
IV. Adagio - Allegro Con Fuoco - 33:02

Anton Rubinstein - Piano Concertos No 1 and No 2

Anton Rubinstein: Piano Concerto No. 4 in D minor, Op. 70 (1864)

Joseph Banowetz, Czecho-Slovak State Philharmonic Orchestra  -  Robert Stankovsky 

The Demon (Демон) is an opera in three acts (six scenes) by Russian composer Anton Rubinstein. The work was composed in 1871. The libretto was by Pavel Viskovatov, based on the poem of the same name by Mikhail Lermontov.

Anton Rubinstein - Demon
Music direction: Mikhail Tatarnikov
Chorus direction: Martino Faggiani

Demon: Kostas Smoriginas
Prince Gudal: Ante Jerkunica
Prince Sinodal: Boris Rudak
Old servant: Alexander Vassiliev
Tamara: Veronika Dzhioeva
An angel : Christianne Stotijn
Nurse: Elena Manistina
Messenger: Igor Morozov
Orchestra: La Monnaie Symphony Orchestra
Chorus: La Monnaie Chorus
La Monnaie Chorus Academy - Vlaams Radio Koor
La Monnaie Youth Choir, La Choraline

Time: Unspecified    Place: Georgia
Act 1
Scene 1 Prologue
During a storm in the Caucasian mountains a chorus of evil spirits call upon the Demon to destroy the beauty of God's creation. The Demon sings of his hatred for the universe and rejects an Angel's plea for him to reconcile with heaven.

Scene 2
Tamara, awaiting her wedding with Prince Sinodal, is by a river with her attendants. The Demon sees her and falls in love with her. He promises her that "all the world will kneel before her" if she returns his love. Tamara is fascinated but frightened by him and returns to the castle.

Scene 3
Prince Sinodal's caravan is making its way to Prince Gudal's court for his marriage to Tamara but is delayed by a landslide. The Demon appears and vows that Prince Sinodal will never see Tamara again. The carvan is attacked by Tatars, and Prince Sinodal is mortally wounded. Before he dies he tells his servant to bring his body to Tamara.

Act 2
Scene 4
The festivities for the wedding have already begun. A messenger announces that Prince Sinodal's caravan has been delayed.[8] Tamara senses the presence of the Demon and is fearful. When Prince Sinodal's body is brought into the castle, Tamara is overcome by grief, but to her horror, keeps hearing the supernatural voice of the Demon and his promises. She begs her father to let her enter a convent.

Act 3
Scene 5
The Demon intends to enter the convent where Tamara is now living, believing that his love for her has opened his spirit to goodness. An Angel tries in vain to stop him.

Scene 6
Tamara prays in her convent cell but is constantantly troubled by thoughts of the Demon, who appears to her in her dreams. The Demon now appears in reality, declares his love for her and begs her to love him in return. Tamara tries to resist her attraction to him but fails. The Demon kisses her in triumph. The Angel suddenly appears and shows her the ghost of Prince Sinodal. In horror, Tamara struggles out of the Demon's arms and falls dead.

Epilogue and Apotheosis
The Angel proclaims that Tamara has been redeemed by her suffering, while the Demon is damned to eternal solitude. The Demon curses his fate. In the final Apotheosis Tamara's soul is carried to Heaven accompanied by angels.



Frédéric Chopin : Piano Concerto No. 1;
Revolutionary Étude, Op. 10, No. 12

Chopin - Piano Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11
Piano: Daniel Barenboim Conductor: Andris Nelsons Staatskapelle Berlin
0:09 - Allegro maestoso
20:56 - Romanze – Larghetto
30:54 - Rondo – Vivace

Chopin - Revolutionary Étude, Op. 10, No. 12
Valentina Lisitsa

Hector Berlioz – Symphonie Fantastique

Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique
Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire
André Cluytens, 1964

Robert Schumann – Variations on the name "Abegg"

Schumann - Variations on the name Abegg, op. 1
Sara Daneshpour performs Schumann - Variations on the name Abegg op. 1 at the Arthur Rubinstein Piano Master Competition (May, 2011, Tel Aviv).

Felix MendelssohnSymphony No. 5 in D major/D minor, Op. 107, "Reformation"

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy  - Symphonies
1-1824, 2-1840, 3-1842, 4-1833, 5-1830


Symphony No.1 in C minor, Op.11 (1824)
1.Allegro di molto (00:00)
2.Andante (07:43)
3.Menuetto - Allegro molto (14:29)
4.Allegro con fuoco (20:48)


Symphony No.2 in B flat, Op.52 ‘’Hymn of Praise’'(1840)
B-dur ‘’Lobgesang’’ 
Si bémol Majeur ‘’Chant des louanges’’ 
1.Sinfonia (29:15)
2.Alles was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn (54:46)
Lobt den Herrn mit Saitenspiel 
Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele 
3.Saget es, die ihr erlöst seid (1:01:53)
Er zählet unsre Tränen
4.Sagt es, die ihr erlöset seid (1:04:49)
5.Ich harrete des Herrn (1:06:56)
6.Stricke des Todes hatten uns umfangen (1:12:15)
7.Die Nacht ist vergangen (1:16:28)
8.Nun danket alle Gott (1:20:51)
Lob, Ehr’ und Preis sei Gott
9.Drum sing ich mit meinem Liede (1:24:49)
10.Ihr Völker! bringet her dem Herrn (1:29:26)
Alles danke dem Herrn
Alles was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn

Sopranos : Helen Donath & Rotraud Hansmann
Tenor : Waldemar Kmentt
New Philharmonia chorus
Chorus master : Wilhelm Pitz


Symphony No.3 in A minor, Op.56 ‘’Scottish’’ (1842)
a-moll ‘’Schottische Symphonie’’ 
la mineur ‘’Ecossaise’’ 
1.Andante con moto - Allegro un poco agitato (1:35:09)
Assai animato - Andante come prima
2.Vivace non troppo (1:50:33)
3.Adagio (1:54:50)
4.Allegro vivacissimo - Allegro maestoso assai (2:04:18)


Symphony No.4 in A, Op.90 ‘’Italian’' (1833)
A-dur ‘’Italienische Symphonie’’ 
La Majeur ‘’Italienne’'
1.Allegro Vivace (2:14:03)
2.Andante con moto (2:24:35)
3.Con moto moderato (2:31:00)
4.Saltarello (2:37:38)


Symphony No.5 in D minor, Op.107 ‘’Reformation’'(1830)
d-moll ‘’reformations-Symphonie’'
Ré mineur ‘’Réformation’’ 
1.Andante - Allegro con fuoco (2:43:32)
2.Allegro vivace (2:55:11)
3.Andante (3:01:13)
4.Choral : Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott ! (3:04:43)
Andante con moto - Allegro vivace
Allegro maestoso - Più animato poco a poco

New Philharmonia Orchestra 
Wolfgang Sawallisch
Stéréo recording in 1967, at London

28 January
Daniel AuberFra Diavolo first performed in Paris. 

Fra Diavolo, ou L'hôtellerie de Terracine (Fra Diavolo, or The Inn of Terracina) is an opéra comique in three acts by the French composer Daniel Auber, from a libretto by Auber's regular collaborator Eugène Scribe. It is loosely based on the life of the Itrani guerrilla leader Michele Pezza, active in southern Italy in the period 1800-1806, who went under the name of Fra Diavolo ("Brother Devil").

The opera was first performed by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle Ventadour in Paris on 28 January 1830 and an Italian version was prepared by Auber and Scribe for performance in London in 1857. 

       Auber - Fra Diavolo ( The Inn of Terracina )

Fra Diavolo, a bandit    tenor 
Zerline, daughter of Mathéo    soprano   
Lord Cockburn, an English traveller    baritone  
Lady Pamela, his wife    mezzo-soprano  
Lorenzo, an officer of the guards    tenor  
Giacomo, Fra Diavolo's accomplice    bass 
Beppo, Fra Diavolo's accomplice    tenor   
Mathéo, an innkeeper    bass   
A Peasant    tenor    
A Soldier    tenor    
Francesco, the richest man in five miles    mute    
Jean-Jacques, Lord Cockburn's servant    mute or chorus    
John, Matheo's servant    mute or chorus    
Zerline, daughter of the innkeeper of Terracina, is in love with an impoverished soldier, Lorenzo, but her father wants her to marry the rich old Francesco. Lorenzo is in pursuit of the notorious bandit Fra Diavolo. Diavolo himself arrives at the inn disguised as a marquis and robs two English travellers, Lord and Lady Cockburn. Lorenzo manages to retrieve part of the stolen goods and is rewarded with enough money to marry Zerline. Diavolo is determined to rob the travellers again and enlists the help of his two comical henchmen, Giacomo and Beppo. During the night the three of them sneak into Zerline's room and steal her dowry. Lorenzo appears and mistakes the 'marquis' for a rival in love. The next day Zerline is forced to marry Francesco as she now no longer has her dowry. Diavolo instructs his henchmen to warn him when Lorenzo and his troop of soldiers have left the town so he can safely rob again, but the two are recognised in the crowd by Zerline and Diavolo is tricked into appearing and arrested when the signal is given as arranged. Zerline is free to marry Lorenzo again.

26 December
Gaetano DonizettiIl diluvio universale

Il diluvio universale (The great flood) is an azione tragico-sacra, or opera, by Gaetano Donizetti. The Italian libretto was written by Domenico Gilardoni after Lord Byron's Heaven and Earth and Francesco Ringhieri's tragedy Il diluvio (1788).

Gaetano Donizetti - Il Diluvio Universale

NOE': Mirco Palazzi
JAFET: Simon Bailey
SEM: Mark Wilde
CAM: Dean Robinson
TESBITE: Irina Lungu
ASFENE: Ivana Dimitrijevich
ABRA: Anne Marie Gibbons
CADMO: Colin Lee
SELA: Majella Cullagh
ADA: Manuela Custer
ARTOO:  Roland Wood


11 March
Vincenzo Bellini La Capuleti e i Montecchi 

I Capuleti e i Montecchi (The Capulets and the Montagues) is an Italian opera (Tragedia lirica) in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini. The libretto by Felice Romani was a reworking of the story of Romeo and Juliet for an opera by Nicola Vaccai called Giulietta e Romeo and based on the play of the same name by Luigi Scevola written in 1818, thus an Italian source rather than taken directly from William Shakespeare.

18 May
Karl Goldmark, composer, born.

26 December
Gaetano DonizettiAnna Bolena first performed in Milan. Libretto by Felice Romani.


Anna Bolena is a tragic opera (tragedia lirica) in two acts composed by Gaetano Donizetti. Felice Romani wrote the Italian libretto after Ippolito Pindemonte's Enrico VIII ossia Anna Bolena and Alessandro Pepoli's Anna Bolena, both recounting the life of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII.

It is one of four operas by Donizetti dealing with the Tudor period in English history—in composition order, Il castello di Kenilworth (1829), Anna Bolena (1830), Maria Stuarda (named for Mary, Queen of Scots, it appeared in different forms in 1834 and 1835), and Roberto Devereux (1837, named for a putative lover of Queen Elizabeth I of England). The leading female characters of the latter three operas are often referred to as "the Three Donizetti Queens."

Anna Bolena premiered on 26 December 1830 at the Teatro Carcano in Milan, to "overwhelming success." Weinstock notes that only after this success did Donizetti's teacher, Johann Simon Mayr, "address his former pupil as Maestro."

Karl Goldmark

Karl Goldmark

Karl Goldmark, (born May 18, 1830, Keszthely, Hung.—died Jan. 2, 1915, Vienna, Austria), Austro-Hungarian composer whose opera Die Königin von Saba (1875; “The Queen of Sheba”) was highly popular in the late 19th century.


The son of a poor Jewish cantor, Goldmark studied violin in Vienna under Georg Böhm and theory under Gottfried Preyer; in composition he was self-taught. During his long career in Vienna he became a leading musical figure of the city, directing the Eintracht Choral Society, writing music criticism, and rallying support for the faction of Richard Wagner—in opposition to Johannes Brahmsand Eduard Hanslick. He composed in all the standard genres, sometimes in a vaguely Hungarian idiom but nearly always showing a dependence upon Wagner. His most successful works are the overture Sakuntala (1860) and the opera Die Königin von Saba. Among his other works are five operas, notably Das Heimchen am Herd (1896; “The Cricket on the Hearth,” after Charles Dickens); two symphonies; and chamber works.

Karl Goldmark - Sakuntala Overture, Op. 13 (1865)
Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra - András Korodi

Goldmark - Violin Concerto Nº1 in A minor Op.28 (1877)
I.Allegro moderato:15:03
Seattle Symphony Orchestra - G.Schwarz

Karl Goldmark - Symphony Nº2 in E-Flat Major,Op.35 (1887)
III.Allegro quasi presto:5:41
IV.Andante assai-Allegro alla breve:7:55
Rhenish Philharmonic Orchestra - M.Halasz

Eugène Delacroix - The Death of Sardanapalus

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