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Romantic Era


Sam Colt receives a patent for his revolver in the United States
  •  Britain has been emancipating slaves in its Cape Colony. Boers in the colony dislike it. From 10,000 to 14,000 Boers begin their Great Trek away from British rule and toward new lands to occupy.  •  Pope Gregory XVI bans railways in his Papal States, calling them "ways of the devil."  •  Anglo Texans are defeated at the Alamo. They declare Texas independent and go on to defeat Mexico's military forces

The United States officially recognizes Texas as independent. Mexico does not
  •   Britain invites the US and France to participate in international patrols to interdict slave ships. The US declines to participate  •   Sam Morse patents the telegraph  •  A revolt by the French and some Anglos in Canada fails  •  In the Japanese city of Osaka in the wake of the famine, rebellion and fire destroy one-fourth of the city before the rebellion is crushed. At Edo (now Tokyo), a US ship arrives to repatriate shipwrecked Japanese sailors, to establish trade and land missionaries. The ship is fired upon and driven away  •   Pickwick Papers - Charles Dickens (UK)

Cherokee Indians are forced off their farms and out of the homes and sent on what will become known as the "Trail of Tears" to Oklahoma
  •  In Britain this year, 58 children under the age of 13 have died in mining accidents, and 64 between the ages of 13 and 18  •  Building on a theory about geology by Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin develops a theory of evolutionary selection and specialization  •  Scientists have been debating about cells. Cellular regeneration (cells dividing) is involved, and cell theory is on its way to being seen as the fundamental unit of life  •  Oliver Twist - Charles Dickens (UK)  •  Eugène Delacroix – Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand

In Britain, conservatives kill another reform package, and there are riots in Wales and such cities as Glasgow, Newcastle and Birmingham
  •  In Britain, conservatives kill another reform package, and there are riots in Wales and such cities as Glasgow, Newcastle and Birmingham  •  The British fear Russian influence in Afghanistan and want "a trustworthy ally" there – on India's western frontier. There they have sent a force of 12,000 British and Indian troops, with elephants, 38,000 camels and a horde of followers, including families, prostitutes, and sellers of opium, rum and tobacco  •  The British have claimed lands in the valley of the Aroostook River, an area claimed by the state of Maine. A land agent arrives from the US to expel them. British lumberjacks seize him. Maine sends 10,000 troops to the area. A British militia in New Brunswick is called up. Neither side wants war and the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 is created, establishing a recognized border dividing the area between the US and Canada  •  US authorities take custody of a slave trading ship, the Amistad, a Cuban schooner. It has 53 Africans on board who had taken control and were trying to sail the ship back to Africa  • 

Charles Goodyear invents vulcanization, for making rubber  •  Egyptians defeat the Ottoman Turks at the battle of Nisibin, near the Turkish-Syrian border  •  After a decade of anti-opium campaigns, China's government creates tougher laws and seizes 20,000 chests of British opium. The party in power in London, the Whigs, did not want to  be accused of failing to protect Britain's commercial interests. It sends a punitive expedition, starting the first Anglo-Chinese war  •  France becomes the first European power to recognize Texas as independent of Mexico. Great Britain, Holland and Belgium do so months later

Europe's four big powers, including Britain, force Egypt to relinquish control over Syria. Britain occupies the port of Aden (in south Yemen) to protect itself from the Egyptians
  •  Science applied to farming is described by Justus Liebig, in his published work Chemistry in Its Application to Agriculture and Physiology.  This is to transform agriculture, and agriculture is to make possible coming advances in industrialization  •  The population of the United States has increased 36 percent in the last ten years – from 13 to almost 18 million. Railway track has grown from 100 to 3,500 miles. The US now has 1,200 cotton factories, two-thirds of them in New England

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. 



Robert Schumann – Fantasie in C

Robert Schumann - Fantasy in C major, Op. 17
Nelson Freire, 1983

Henri Vieuxtemps - Violin Concerto No. 2, in F sharp minor, Op. 19
Hrachya Avanesyan (violin),
Orchestre Philharmonique Royal de Liège,
Patrick Davin (conductor)

Henri Vieuxtemps – Violin Concerto No. 2 in F♯ minor

Gaetano Donizetti – Belisario
Dirección musical: Javier Logioia Orbe
Puesta en escena, diseño de escenografía y vestuario: Marcelo Perusso
Dirección del coro: Juan Casasbellas
Reconstrucción de la partitura por Juan Casasbellas.
Con Christian Peregrino, Omar Carión, María Luz Martínez, Vanina Guilledo, Sergio Spina, abriela Ceaglio, Gustavo De Gennaro, Walter Schwarz, Julián Zámbó, Lucas Somoza.
Coro Buenos Aires Lírica y Orquesta

Antonina, Belisario's wife    soprano 
Irene, their daughter    mezzo-soprano  
Belisario, General of the army    baritone 
Giustiniano, Emperor of the Orient    bass  
Alamiro, prisoner of Belisario    tenor  
Eudora    soprano
Eutropio, head of the imperial guard    tenor 
Eusebio, caretaker of the prison    bass 
Ottario    bass   
Place: Byzantium and the Haemus mountains.
Time: sixth century A.D.

Act 1
Il Trionfo (Triumph)    
The hall in the emperor's palace

Irene and the populace greet the victor Belisarius. Antonina hates her husband because Proclus, the slave of Belisarius, has confessed on his deathbed, that upon command of his master he had exposed her son on the shore of the ocean, thus causing his death. The Emperor Justinian greets his commander and grants his prayer for the release of the prisoners. The captive, Alamiro, who adores Belisarius, refuses to leave him (Recitative and duet: Che veggio!... Il don sprezzi forse, Alamiro? / "What do I see, you Alamiro reject my gift?"). The general adopts him in place of his long lost son. Irene congratulates her father, but Antonina has already begun her work of hate, by traducing Belisarius to Justinian, and the innocent man is accused of high treason and thrown into prison on the evidence of his wife.

Act 2
L'Esilio (Exile)     
Before the prison

Alamiro and his friends lament the fate of Belisarius, whose eyes have been put out by his enemies, falsely construing and disobeying the commands of the emperor. Alamiro swears vengeance (Aria: Trema, Bisanzio! sterminatrice, Su te la guerra discenderà / "Tremble, murderous Byzantium, war shall descend upon thee"). Irene clad as a youth arrives to act as guide to her father, who is about to be released from prison (Duet: Oh tu, che della eterna, orribil notte /"Oh thou, who in terrible darkness").

Act 3
La Morte (Death)     
In the mountains

As the clang of weapons is heard, Irene leads Belisarius to a cave for safety. Alamiro now leads the army of the Alanni against Byzantium to avenge Belisarius. Belisarius confronts him and recognizes him as his son through an amulet. At his father's request, the son leaves the ranks of the enemies of Byzantium, and the Alanni, now under the command of Ottavio, march to Byzantium, having no fear, as the emperor's army is bereft of its leader.

Hall in Byzantium

Antonina, in remorse, tells the emperor that her testimony against Belisarius was false. Irene approaches with news of the victory and informs Antonina that Alamiro is her son, and that it was the slave, not Belisarius, who had planned his death. Meanwhile, the blind Belisarius has led the Byzantine army and defeated the Alanni, who had threatened Byzantium, but an arrow has mortally wounded him. He is carried in dying, and the sorrowing emperor promises to be a father to Alamiro and Irene.

4 February 
Gaetano DonizettiBelisario

Belisario (Belisarius)
is a tragedia lirica (tragic opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian libretto after Luigi Marchionni's adaptation of Eduard von Schenk's[de] play, Belisarius, first staged in Munich in 1820 and then (in Italian) in Naples in 1826.

22 May
Felix Mendelssohn
St. Paul


The libretto was begun in 1832 by the composer with pastor Julius Schubring (de), a childhood friend, pulling together passages from the New Testament (chiefly the Acts of the Apostles) and Old Testament. It also features chorales or hymn settings after Bach's model.

Composition of the music began in 1834, and the work was premiered on 22 May 1836 (having been completed in April of that year) at the Lower Rhenish Music Festival in Düsseldorf. 

The oratorio, which is in two parts, begins with an introduction (Nos. 1-3), and continues with the martyrdom of St. Stephen, and St Paul's conversion and baptism (Nos. 12-22). Part Two continues with the mission of Paul and Barnabas (Nos. 23-27), Paul's persecution at the hands of his former co-religionists (Nos. 28-31), the healing of the lame man of Lystra (Nos. 32-36), the resistance of the Jews and heathen (Nos. 37-40), Paul's departure from Ephesus (Nos. 41-43), and following the mention of his martyrdom, a final chorus based on Psalm 103.

Felix Mendelssohn - Paulus Oratorio Op. 36

Royal Scottish National Orchestra and Chorus
Susan Roberts, Ruby Philogene, Glenn Siebert, Mark Beesley, Christopher Bell, Leon Botstein

28 May  
Anton Reicha, composer, dies.

24 August 
Gaetano DonizettiBetly

Betly, ossia La capanna svizzera ("Betly, or The Swiss Chalet")
is a dramma giocoso in two acts (originally one) by the Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti. The composer wrote the Italian libretto after Eugène Scribe and Anne-Honoré-Joseph Duveyrier de Mélésville's libretto for Adolphe Adam's opéra comique Le chalet, in its turn based on Goethe's Singspiel Jery und Bätely (1779).

Gaetano Donizetti - Betly

Direção Musical: Augusto Girotto

Betly: Ísis Cunha
Daniel: Marcus Loureiro
Max: Vicente Sampaio

Daniele, young landowner    tenor 
Max, Swiss sergeant    baritone  
Betly, Max's sister    soprano  
Swiss peasants and soldiers

Time: 18th century
Place: Appenzell, Switzerland

Daniele Birman, a young Swiss landowner, is in love with Betly, a beautiful and independent girl, who, however, doesn't return his feelings. As the opera begins, the inhabitants of Appenzell have prepared for a joke a fake love letter from Betly to Daniele, accepting his marriage proposal. The young man is elated and invites the villagers to his wedding celebrations. Soon after, Betly arrives and discovers the situation. Even though she momentarily feels pity for Daniele, she dashes his hopes and resolutely rejects his pleas for marriage.

Sad Daniele stumbles upon a troop of Swiss soldiers under the command of Sergeant Max Starner, and out of desperation tries to enlist in the army. Daniele confides in Max, not realizing he is Betly's brother gone from the Canton of Appenzell for fifteen years, to whom he has recently sent a letter informing of his intention to marry Betly, and whose encouragement he has received. Max decides to teach his sister a lesson and secure a happy ending for Daniele. To that end, he orders his soldiers to turn Betly's house upside down. The soldiers eagerly obey and demand food and alcohol from Betly. Max conceals his identity from the sister, and frightens her into believing that if after fifteen days he and his troop depart satisfied, she will have to house the entire regiment.

Betly begs Daniele to stay with her for a day, in order to keep the unruly soldiers at bay. Overjoyed Daniele agrees, while Betly starts to feel sympathy for him. Max pretends to be drunk and makes false advances on Betly, who calls upon Daniele's help. After an argument Max challenges Daniele to a duel at midnight, which the latter accepts. For Max the duel is just a vehicle to bring Daniele and Betly together. To calm down anxious Betly, Daniele tells her that the sergeant has apologized, then swears eternal love to her and says he is leaving to join the army. At this moment Max reappears and pretends he will fight with Daniele. Betly, by now feeling a genuine affection for Daniele, attempts to prevent the duel and to save Daniele from being killed. Max says he may well show clemency if he knew Daniele were married. Upon hearing this, Betly gathers her courage and claims Daniele is in fact her husband, and father of the family, for that matter. As a proof of her words, Max first forces Betly and Daniele to embrace each other, and next demands the marriage contract to be shown. Betly finds and signs the document, that was already signed by a deceived Daniele in preparation for his "wedding". She gives the contract to Max and secretly tells Daniele that this is a ruse: in order to be valid, the document must also be signed by her brother Max. Once Max has the papers in his hands, he quickly signs them and reveals his identity. Betly proclaims her love for Daniele and the story happily concludes.

21 February 
Léo Delibes
, composer, born.

29 February 
Giacomo Meyerbeer Les Huguenots

Les Huguenots
is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of grand opera. In five acts, to a libretto by Eugène Scribe and Émile Deschamps, it premiered in Paris in 1836.

29 March 
Richard WagnerDas Liebesverbot

Das Liebesverbot (The Ban on Love, WWV 38)
, is an early comic opera in two acts by Richard Wagner, with the libretto written by the composer after Shakespeare's Measure for Measure.

Richard Wagner - Das Liebesverbot
Conductor: Sebastian Weigle

Friedrich, governor of Sicily    bass-baritone 
Luzio, a young nobleman    tenor 
Claudio, a young nobleman    tenor  
Antonio, their friend    tenor    
Angelo, their friend    baritone   
Isabella, Claudio's sister    soprano 
Mariana, novice in a monastery    soprano   
Brighella, captain of the watch    baritone  
Danieli, an innkeeper    bass    
Dorella    soprano    Schindler
Ponzio Pilato, Danieli's servant    tenor    

Place: Palermo          Time: 16th century
Act 1
The town square

An unnamed King of Sicily leaves his country on a journey to Naples, as I suppose, and deputes to his appointed State-holder—called simply Friedrich, to mark him for a German—the full authority to use all royal powers in an attempt to radically reform the manners of his capital, which had become an abomination to the strait-laced minister. At the commencement of the piece we see public officers hard at work on the houses of amusement in a suburb of Palermo, closing some, demolishing others, and taking their hosts and servants into custody. The populace interferes; great riot: after a roll of the drums the chief constable Brighella (basso buffo), standing at bay, reads out the edict of the State-holder according to which these measures have been adopted to secure a better state of morals.

General derision, with a mocking chorus; Luzio, a young nobleman and jovial rake (tenor), appears to wish to make himself the people's leader; he promptly finds occasion for espousing the cause of the oppressed when he sees his friend Claudio (likewise tenor) conducted on the road to prison, and learns from him that, in pursuance of an ancient law unearthed by Friedrich, he is about to be condemned to death for an amorous indiscretion. His affianced, whom the hostility of her parents has prevented his marrying, has become a mother by him; the hatred of the relatives allies itself with Friedrich's puritanic zeal: he fears the worst, and has one only hope of rescue, that the pleading of his sister Isabella may succeed in softening the tyrant's heart. Luzio promises to go at once to Isabella in the cloister of the Elisabethans, where she has lately entered her novitiate.

A convent

Within the quiet cloister walls we make the acquaintance of this sister, in confidential converse with her friend Marianne, who also has entered as novice. Marianne discloses to her friend, from whom she has long been parted, the sad fate that has brought her hither. By a man of high position she had been persuaded to a secret union, under the pledge of eternal fidelity; in her hour of utmost need she had found herself abandoned, and even persecuted, for the betrayer proved to be the most powerful personage in all the state, no less a man than the King's present State-holder.

Isabella's horror finds vent in a tempest of wrath, only to be allayed by the resolve to leave a world where such monstrosities can go unpunished.—When Luzio brings her tidings of the fate of her own brother, her abhorrence of his misdemeanour passes swiftly to revolt against the baseness of the hypocritical State-holder who dares so cruelly to tax her brother's infinitely lesser fault, at least attainted with no treachery. Her violence unwittingly exhibits her to Luzio in the most seductive light; fired by sudden love, he implores her to leave the nunnery for ever and take his hand. She quickly brings him to his senses, yet decides, without a moment's wavering, to accept his escort to the State-holder in the House of Justice.

A courtroom

Here the trial is about to take place, and I introduce it with a burlesque examination of various moral delinquents by the chief constable Brighella. This gives more prominence to the seriousness of the situation when the gloomy figure of Friedrich appears, commanding silence to the uproarious rabble that has forced the doors; he then begins the hearing of Claudio in strictest form. The relentless judge is upon the point of passing sentence, when Isabella arrives and demands a private audience of the State-holder.

She comports herself with noble moderation in this private colloquy with a man she fears and yet despises, commencing with nothing but an appeal to his clemency and mercy. His objections make her more impassioned: she sets her brother's misdemeanour in a touching light, and pleads forgiveness for a fault so human and in nowise past all pardon. As she observes the impression of her warmth, with ever greater fire she goes on to address the hidden feeling of the judge's heart, which cannot possibly have been quite barred against the sentiments that made her brother stray, and to whose own experience she now appeals for help in her despairing plea for mercy. The ice of that heart is broken: Friedrich, stirred to his depths by Isabella's beauty, no longer feels himself his master; he promises to Isabella whatever she may ask, at price of her own body.

Hardly has she become conscious of this unexpected effect, than, in utmost fury at such incredible villainy, she rushes to door and window and calls the people in, to unmask the hypocrite to all the world. Already the whole crowd is pouring in to the judgment hall, when Friedrich's desperate self-command succeeds in convincing Isabella, by a few well-chosen phrases, of the impossibility of her attempt: he would simply deny her accusation, represent his offer as a means of detection, and certainly find credence if it came to any question of repudiating a charge of wanton insult.

Isabella, ashamed and bewildered, recognises the madness of her thought, and succumbs to mute despair. But while Friedrich is displaying his utmost rigour afresh to the people, and delivering sentence on the prisoner, Isabella suddenly remembers the mournful fate of Marianne; like a lightning-flash, she conceives the idea of gaining by stratagem what seems impossible through open force. At once she bounds from deepest sorrow to the height of mirth: to her lamenting brother, his downcast friend, the helpless throng, she turns with promise of the gayest escapade she will prepare for all of them, for the very Carnival which the State-holder had so strenuously forbidden shall be celebrated this time with unwonted spirit, as that dread rigorist had merely donned the garb of harshness the more agreeably to surprise the town by his hearty share in all the sport he had proscribed.

Everyone deems her crazy, and Friedrich chides her most severely for such inexplicable folly: a few words from her suffice to set his own brain reeling; for beneath her breath she promises fulfilment of his fondest wishes, engaging to despatch a messenger with welcome tidings for the following night.

Thus ends the first act, in wildest commotion.

Act 2
A prison

What the heroine's hasty plan may be, we learn at the beginning of the second, where she gains admittance to her brother's gaol to prove if he is worth the saving. She reveals to him Friedrich's shameful proposals, and asks him if he craves his forfeit life at this price of his sister's dishonour? Claudio's wrath and readiness to sacrifice himself are followed by a softer mood, when he begins to bid his sister farewell for this life, and commit to her the tenderest greetings for his grieving lover; at last his sorrow causes him to quite break down.

Isabella, about to tell him of his rescue, now pauses in dismay; for she sees her brother falling from the height of nobleness to weak avowal of unshaken love of life, to the shamefaced question whether the price of his deliverance be quite beyond her. Aghast, she rises to her feet, thrusts the craven from her, and informs him that he now must add to the shame of death the full weight of her contempt.

As soon as she has returned him to the gaoler, her bearing once more passes to ebullient glee: she resolves indeed to chastise the weak-kneed by prolonging his uncertainty about his fate, but still abides by her decision to rid the world of the most disgraceful hypocrite that ever sought to frame its laws.

She has arranged for Marianne to take her place in the rendezvous desired by Friedrich for the night, and now sends him the invitation, which, to involve him in the greater ruin, appoints a masked encounter at one of the places of amusement which he himself has closed.

The madcap Luzio, whom she also means to punish for his impudent proposal to a novice, she tells of Friedrich's passion, and remarks on her feigned decision to yield to the inevitable in such a flippant fashion that she plunges him, at other times so feather-brained, into an agony of despair: he swears that even should the noble maid intend to bear this untold shame, he will ward it off with all his might, though all Palermo leap ablaze.

Outside Friedrich's Palace

In effect he induces every friend and acquaintance to assemble at the entrance to the Corso that evening, as if for leading off the prohibited grand Carnival procession. At nightfall, when the fun is already waxing wild there, Luzio arrives, and stirs the crowd to open bloodshed by a daring carnival-song with the refrain: 'Who'll not carouse at our behest, your steel shall smite him in the breast.' Brighella approaching with a company of the watch, to disperse the motley gathering, the revellers are about to put their murderous projects into execution; but Luzio bids them scatter for the present, and ambush in the neighbourhood, as he here must first await the actual leader of their movement: for this is the place that Isabella had tauntingly divulged to him as her rendezvous with the State-holder.

For the latter Luzio lies in wait: he soon detects him in a stealthy masker, whose path he bars, and as Friedrich tears himself away he is about to follow him with shouts and drawn rapier, when by direction of Isabella, concealed among the bushes, he himself is stopped and led astray. Isabella comes forth, rejoicing in the thought of having restored Marianne to her faithless mate at this very moment, and in the possession of what she believes to be the stipulated patent of her brother's pardon; she is on the point of renouncing all further revenge when, breaking open the seal by the light of a torch, she is horrified at discovering an aggravation of the order of execution, which chance and bribery of the gaoler had delivered into her hands through her wish to defer her brother's knowledge of his ransom.

After a hard battle with the devouring flames of love, and recognising his powerlessness against this enemy of his peace, Friedrich has resolved that, however criminal his fall, it yet shall be as a man of honour. One hour on Isabella's bosom, and then his death—by the selfsame law to whose severity the life of Claudio still shall stand irrevocably forfeit. Isabella, who perceives in this action but an additional villainy of the hypocrite, once more bursts out in frenzy of despairing grief.

At her call to instant revolt against the odious tyrant the whole populace assembles, in wildest turmoil: Luzio, arriving on the scene at this juncture, sardonically adjures the throng to pay no heed to the ravings of a woman who, as she has deceived himself, assuredly will dupe them all; for he still believes in her shameless dishonour.

Fresh confusion, climax of Isabella's despair: suddenly from the back is heard Brighella's burlesque cry for help; himself entangled in the coils of jealousy, he has seized the disguised State-holder by mistake, and thus leads to the latter's discovery. Friedrich is unmasked; Marianne, clinging to his side, is recognised. Amazement, indignation, joy: the necessary explanations are soon got through ; Friedrich moodily asks to be led before the judgment-seat of the King on his return, to receive the capital sentence; Claudio, set free from prison by the jubilant mob, instructs him that death is not always the penalty for a love-offence.

Fresh messengers announce the unexpected arrival of the King in the harbour; everyone decides to go in full carnival-attire to greet the beloved prince, who surely will be pleased to see how ill the sour puritanism of the Germans becomes the heat of Sicily. The word goes round: 'Gay festivals delight him more than all your gloomy edicts.' Friedrich, with his newly married wife Marianne, has to head the procession; the Novice, lost to the cloister for ever, makes the second pair with Luzio.

13 October 
Adolphe AdamLe postillon de Lonjumeau

Le postillon de Lonjumeau (The Postillion of Lonjumeau)
is an opéra-comique in three acts by Adolphe Adam to a French libretto by 'Adolphe de Leuven' and 'Brunswick' (pen names of Adolphe von Ribbing and Léon Lévy).

Madeleine, Chapelou's wife    dramatic coloratura soprano    
Rose    light-lyric soprano or soubrette 
Chapelou, a coachman    tenor 
Le Marquis de Corcy, head of the Paris Opéra    baritone 
Biju, Chapelou's friend    bass-baritone 
Bourdon    bass  
Act 1

The newly married postilion, or coachman, (Chapelou) and his wife (Madeleine), an innkeeper, to ensure that their marriage will be a joyous one, decide to consult a clairvoyant, who predicts that things will not go smoothly in their marriage but does not state exactly what will occur nor when. Initially concerned, their thoughts are temporarily forgotten as they enjoy their wedding night. Several days into the marriage, the Marquis de Corcy (who is also the director of the Royal Paris Opera House) arrives at the inn that Madeleine owns and Chapelou works at. He is immediately smitten with Chapelou's wife, but doesn't say anything to her. Then he overhears her husband singing his ‘usual’ song with other guests at the inn, and is impressed with his beautiful voice. He decides to invite the young coachman to join the Marquis’s company, but they have to leave immediately. With excitement, Chapelou asks his friend, Biju, to tell his wife where he has gone and what he plans to do. Chapelou and the Marquis then quickly depart for Paris, leaving Madeleine in a state of shock.

Act 2

Ten years later. By now Madeleine has come into an inheritance and is known as Madame Latour, and Chapelou has become a star at the Paris Opera. After a performance, the Marquis holds a reception to which he has invited Madame Latour. As soon as they meet at the reception, Chapelou falls for the Madame's charms, not recognising the wife he left behind. He proposes, she accepts, and a wedding occurs.

Act 3

The Marquis has gone to inform the police and denounce this apparent act of bigamy. On the wedding night, Madeleine appears in her old peasant clothes and Chapelou recognises her. Then she transforms before his eyes into Madame Latour, the rich heiress. She reveals her deception to the Marquis, as he arrives with the police and declares to them her game – the couple have married twice and vow from that day on to love like good village people. This induces a hearty response from the chorus to provide a stirring finale.

Adolphe Adam - Le Postillon de Lonjumeau

Chapelou: John Aler
Madelaine: June Anderson
Bijou: Jean-Philippe Lafont
Marquis de Corcy: François Le Roux
Bourdon: Daniel Ottevaere 

Chorus: Ensemble Choral Jean Laforge

Orchestra: Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte-Carlo

Conductor: Thomas Fulton

9 December 
Mikhail GlinkaA Life for the Tsar

A Life for the Tsar (Russian: "Жизнь за царя", Zhizn' za tsarya), is a "patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka.

The original Russian libretto, based on historical events, was written by Nestor Kukolnik, Egor Fyodorovich (von) Rozen, Vladimir Sollogub and Vasily Zhukovsky.

Mikhail Glinka - A Life for the Tsar
Bolshoi theatre Moscow
Producer Nicolai Kuznetsov
Designer Valery Levental
Ivan Susanin, a peasant Evgeny Nesterenko
Antonida, Susanin's daughter Marina Mescheriakova

Ivan Susanin, a peasant of the village of Domnino    bass
Antonida, his daughter    soprano 
Vanya, Susanin's adopted son    contralto 
Bogdan Sobinin, a militiaman, Antonida's fiance    tenor 
Commander of the Polish Detachment    bass      
A Polish courier    tenor  
Commander of the Russian Detachment    bass      
Chorus and silent: Peasant men and women, militiamen, Polish nobles and ladies, knights


Time: The autumn of 1612 and the winter of 1613.
Act 1     The village of Domnino

Antonida is eager to marry Sobinin, but her father Susanin refuses permission until a Russian has been duly chosen to take the Tsar's throne. When Sobinin informs him that the Grand Council in Moscow has chosen a Tsar, everyone celebrates.

Act 2     Poland

In a sumptuous hall, the nobility are celebrating the Polish dominance over the Russians with singing and dancing. Suddenly a messenger comes in, with the news that Mikhail Romanov has been selected as the Tsar of Russia and is now in hiding. The Poles vow to overthrow him.

Act 3     Susanin's cabin

Susanin and his adopted son Vanya pledge to defend the new Tsar. Susanin blesses Sobinin and Antonida on their upcoming wedding when a detachment of Polish soldiers bursts in, demanding to know the Tsar's whereabouts. Instead Susanin sends Vanya to warn the Tsar while he, Susanin, leads the soldiers off the trail, into the woods. Antonida is devastated. Sobinin gathers some men to go on a rescue mission.

Act 4     A dense forest

Sobinin reassures his men of the rightness of their mission. Night falls. In a part of the forest near a monastery, Vanya knocks at the gates and alerts the inhabitants to spirit the Tsar away. Susanin has led the suspicious Polish troops into an impassable, snow-covered area of the forest. The Poles sleep while Susanin waits for the dawn and bids farewell to his children. A blizzard sets in, and when day breaks, the Poles awake. When they realize that Susanin has deceived them, they kill him.

Léo Delibes

Léo Delibes

(b. St. Germain-du-Val, February 21, 1836; d. Paris, January 16, 1891)


French composer. He enrolled at the Paris Conservatoire in 1847 and studied composition with Adolphe Adam. With the exception of several choral works, a few songs, and some piano pieces, his entire output consisted of works for the stage. The earliest were operettas in the style of Adam and Ferdinand Herold, most of them written for the Bouffes-Parisiens, a popular theater run by the king of Parisian operetta, Jacques Offenbach. In 1864 Delibes became chorusmaster at the Paris Opera, giving him the opportunity to write for the Opera’s ballet.

The success of his first full-length ballet, Coppelia (1870), based on E. T. A. Hoffmann’s tale “Der Sandmann,” allowed him to give up his conducting job and devote himself wholly to composition. While it created less of a sensation, his second ballet, Sylvia (1876), based on a pastoral drama by Torquato Tasso, was musically even finer; when Tchaikovsky first heard the score, he was so dismayed by its excellence he told composer Sergey Taneyev that, had he come across it sooner, he would never have had the nerve to write Swan Lake.

With the 1883 premiere of his opera Lakme, a tragic love story set in colonial India, Delibes achieved the crowning success of his career. In it, as in the two ballets, his gifts as an orchestrator and tunesmith are readily apparent, as are the qualities of elegance and lightness that made his music so popular in its day and continue to charm listeners today.


Coppélia (The Girl With The Enamel Eyes) is a comic ballet originally choreographed by Arthur Saint-Léon to the music of Léo Delibes, with libretto by Charles-Louis-Étienne Nuitter. Nuitter's libretto and mise-en-scène was based upon two stories by E. T. A. Hoffmann: Der Sandmann (The Sandman) and Die Puppe (The Doll). 

Coppélia - Léo Delibes
Grand Ballet Classique de Moscou de N.Kasatkina et V.Vasilev
Chef d'orchestre-Oleg Reshetkin
Orchestre Symphonique Royal du Maroc
Rabat 11.01.2014

Dr. Coppélius is a doctor who has made a life-size dancing doll. It is so lifelike that Franz, a village youth, becomes infatuated with it and sets aside his true heart's desire, Swanhilda. She shows him his folly by dressing as the doll, pretending to make it come to life and ultimately saving him from an untimely end at the hands of the inventor.

Act I
The story begins during a town festival to celebrate the arrival of a new bell. The town crier announces that, when it arrives, anyone who becomes married will be awarded a special gift of money. Swanhilda and Franz plan to marry during the festival. However, Swanhilda becomes unhappy with Franz because he seems to be paying more attention to a girl named Coppélia, who sits motionless on the balcony of a nearby house. The house belongs to a mysterious and faintly diabolical inventor, Doctor Coppélius. Although Coppélia spends all of her time sitting motionless and reading, Franz is mesmerized by her beauty and is determined to attract her attention. Still upset with Franz, Swanhilda shakes an ear of wheat to her head: if it rattles, then she will know that Franz loves her. Upon doing this, however, she hears nothing. When she shakes it by Franz's head, he also hears nothing; but then he tells her that it rattles. However, she does not believe him and runs away heartbroken.

Later on, Dr. Coppelius leaves his house and is heckled by a group of boys. After shooing them away, he continues on without realizing that he has dropped his keys in the melée. Swanhilda finds the keys, which gives her the idea of learning more about Coppélia. She and her friends decide to enter Dr. Coppelius' house. Meanwhile, Franz develops his own plan to meet Coppélia, climbing a ladder to her balcony.

Act II
Swanhilda and her friends find themselves in a large room filled with people. However, the occupants aren't moving. The girls discover that, rather than people, these are life-size mechanical dolls. They quickly wind them up and watch them move. Swanhilda also finds Coppélia behind a curtain and discovers that she, too, is a doll.

Dr. Coppelius returns home to find the girls. He becomes angry with them, not only for trespassing but for also disturbing his workroom. He kicks them out and begins cleaning up the mess. However, upon noticing Franz at the window, Coppélius invites him in. The inventor wants to bring Coppélia to life but, to do that, he needs a human sacrifice. With a magic spell, he will take Franz's spirit and transfer it to Coppélia. After Dr. Coppelius proffers him some wine laced with sleeping powder, Franz begins to fall asleep. The inventor then readies his magic spell.

However, Dr. Coppelius did not expel all the girls: Swanhilda is still there, hidden behind a curtain. She dresses up in Coppélia's clothes and pretends that the doll has come to life. She wakes Franz and then winds up all the mechanical dolls to aid their escape. Dr. Coppelius becomes confused and then saddened when he finds a lifeless Coppélia behind the curtain.

Swanhilda and Franz are about to make their wedding vows when the angry Dr. Coppelius appears, claiming damages. Dismayed at having caused such an upset, Swanhilda offers Dr. Coppelius her dowry in return for his forgiveness. However, Franz tells Swanhilda to keep her dowry and offers to pay Dr. Coppelius instead. At that point, the mayor intervenes and gives Dr. Coppelius a bag of money, which placates him. Swanhilda and Franz are married and the entire town celebrates by dancing.

Sylvia, originally Sylvia, ou La nymphe de Diane, is a full-length ballet in two or three acts, first choreographed by Louis Mérante to music by Léo Delibes in 1876. 

Léo Delibes - SYLVIA
Opéra National de Paris
Chorégraphie John Neumeier


Act I: A Sacred Wood
The ballet begins with a scene of worship as creatures of the forest dance before Eros. Aminta, a lowly shepherd, stumbles in on them, disrupting their ritual. Now Sylvia, the object of Aminta's desire, arrives on the scene with her posse of hunters to mock the god of love. Aminta attempts to conceal himself, but Sylvia eventually discovers her stalker and, inflamed, turns her bow towards Eros. Aminta protects the deity and is himself wounded. Eros in turn shoots Sylvia. She is hit, and though not badly wounded, the injury is enough to drive her offstage.

A hunter, Orion, is revealed to also have been watching Sylvia, when he is seen celebrating the unconscious Aminta. Orion conceals himself again as Sylvia returns; this time she is sympathetic towards Aminta. As the huntress laments over her victim, she is kidnapped by Orion and carried off. Peasants grieve over Aminta's figure until a cloaked Eros revives the shepherd. Eros reveals his true identity and informs Aminta of Orion's actions.

Act II: Orion's Island Cave
Captive in Orion's island hideout, Sylvia is tempted by him with jewels and wine to no avail. Sylvia now grieves over Aminta, cherishing the arrow pulled from her breast nostalgically. When Orion steals it from her, Sylvia gets her captor drunk until he is unconscious, whereby she retrieves her arrow and appeals to Eros for help. Sylvia's invocations are not in vain, for Eros quickly arrives and shows his summoner a vision of Aminta waiting for her. The duo depart for the temple of Diana, where Sylvia's love awaits.

Act III: The Sea Coast near the Temple of Diana
Aminta arrives at the temple of Diana to find a bacchanal but no Sylvia, who will soon arrive with Eros. After a few moments of mirth at the reunion, Orion shows up, seeking Sylvia. He and Aminta fight; Sylvia barricades herself in Diana's shrine and Orion attempts to follow. The goddess of the hunt, outraged at this act, smites Orion and denies Aminta and Sylvia congress. Compassionate Eros gives Diana a vision. The goddess reminisces over her own young love of Endymion, also a shepherd. Diana has a change of heart and repeals her decree. Aminta and Sylvia come together under the deities' good will.

Lakmé is an opera in three acts by Léo Delibes to a French libretto by Edmond Gondinet and Philippe Gille.



Hector BerliozGrande Messe des Morts

Berlioz -  Grande Messe des Morts (or Requiem), Op. 5
Director: Leonard Slatkin, Tenor: Steve Davislim, Orchestre National de Lyon, Choeurs de Lyon.

2 January 
Mily Balakirev
, Russian pianist, conductor and composer, born.

17 October 
Johann Nepomuk Hummel, composer, dies.

Felix Mendelssohn: Piano Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 40; Psalm 42 for choir and orchestra, Op. 42; String Quartet No. 4 in E minor

Mendelssohn - Piano Concerto No. 2 in d minor Op. 40
Rudolf Serkin piano-Columbia Symphony Orchestra-Eugene Ormandy- conductor-1959

Felix Mendelssohn: Psalm 42, Op. 42 

Coro:  Wie der Hirsch schreit
Aria:  Meine Seele dürstet  6:19
Coro:  Was betrübst du dich  12:07
Quintetto:  Der Herr hat des Tages verheißen  15:54
Schlußchor:  Was betruüst du dich  20:20

La Chapelle Royale
Collegium Vocale
Ensemble Orchestral de Paris
Eiddwen Harhhy, soprano
Philippe Herreweghe, conductor

Mendelssohn - String Quartet No.4 in E minor, Op.44
Von Quartet
Jisun Lee, Violin
Guðbjartur Hákonarson, Violin
Ursula Steele, Viola
Joanne Yesol Choi, Cello

 Gaspare SpontiniAgnes von Hohenstaufen

Agnes von Hohenstaufen
is an opera in three acts by the Italian composer Gaspare Spontini. The German libretto is by Ernst Benjamin Salomo Raupach. It was first staged at the Königliches Opernhaus, Berlin, on 12 June 1829.  Spontini substantially reworked the piece for a revival in 1837.

Gaspare Spontini - Agnes von Hohenstaufen
Agnese: Montserrat Caballe
Ermengarda: Antonietta Stella
Enrico: Bruno Prevedi 
Filippo : Giampaolo Corradi
Il Re di Francia: Sesto
Teatro dell'Opera de Roma, 1986

Place: Germany
Time: The Middle Ages

Act 1
The action concerns the struggle between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (Heinrich VI) and the leader of the noble Welf faction, Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe). The first act is set in Mainz where the emperor has assembled his forces to march against the Welfs

Agnes of Hohenstaufen, the emperor's cousin, is engaged to be married to the son of Henry the Lion, Henry "Palatinus", but the war brings this alliance into doubt. Henry arrives at Mainz disguised as a troubadour. The French ambassador proposes that Agnes should be married to his king, Philip II Augustus (Philipp August), instead. The emperor agrees and the betrothal is announced at a banquet. Henry, unable to bear the French ambassador's flirting with Agnes, is moved to anger and his true identity is revealed. The emperor condemns him to death and banishes Agnes to a convent. This highhandedness provokes a mutiny amongst some of the nobles.

Act 2
Henry is offered his life providing he renounces Agnes and goes into exile. He angrily rejects these terms just as the mutinous nobles burst in. Henry tries to escape in the confusion but is captured by the French ambassador, who proposes that they should fight a duel the next day. The emperor agrees but gives secret orders to have Henry killed during an escape bid. Henry does indeed manage to break out of prison and reach Agnes in church, where the two are quickly married. The French ambassador is furious and only the intervention of the archbishop prevents a duel in church.

Act 3
Henry and Agnes plan to flee to the army of Henry the Lion, but they are captured. Henry agrees to fight the duel with the French ambassador and mortally wounds him. He is revealed to be none other than King Philip Augustus himself, who had wanted to see his betrothed before the marriage. Irmengard, Agnes' mother, now announces that the wedding between Henry and her daughter has already taken place. The emperor is furious but he provokes another mutiny among the nobles. Henry unexpectedly draws his sword to defend the emperor's authority.
At this point Henry the Lion arrives in person to announce his army has taken Mainz, but he too offers his submission to the emperor. The dying French king pardons the young Henry. The emperor blesses the married couple and encourages his subjects to unite for an expedition to Italy.

29 October 
Gaetano Donizetti Roberto Devereux

2 December​ 
Daniel AuberThe Black Domino 

Le domino noir (The Black Domino)
is an opéra comique by the French composer Daniel Auber, first performed on 2 December 1837 by the Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse in Paris. The libretto to the three-act piece is by Auber's usual collaborator, Eugène Scribe.

Auber - Le domino noir - Ouverture

Angèle de Olivarès, a novice nun    soprano 
Brigitte de San Lucar, her fellow nun and confidante    soprano 
Horace de Massarena, a young Spanish nobleman    tenor 
Count Juliano, his friend    tenor 
Jacinthe, Juliano's housekeeper    alto 
Gil Perez, Jacinthe's lover    bass 
Ursule, another nun, later abbess of the convent    soprano
Lord Elfort, a British diplomat    tenor
Gertrude, convent portress    alto 
Time: c. 1780         
Place: Madrid

The action concerns a young novice nun, Angèle de Olivarès. Enjoying her last freedom before taking final vows, Angèle slips out of the Ursuline convent along with her companion Brigitte to attend a ball in honour of the Queen of Spain's birthday. To conceal her identity, she wears a black half-mask (the "domino" of the title). A year previously, at the same ball, Angèle had met a young man, Horace de Masserena. Horace has fallen in love with her and returns to the ball in the hope of seeing her again. Instead he meets the unknown woman in the black mask and dances with her. Thinking to help Horace, his friend Count Juliano, sets the clock back an hour causing Angèle to miss leaving at midnight, which would have allowed her to get back to the convent in time before the gates close. Angèle runs off and tries to take shelter for the night in a house she finds on the way. Unfortunately, it turns out to belong to Count Juliano who is holding a late-night party for his friends. Angèle persuades the housekeeper to disguise her as her niece from the country. She manages to fool everyone except, of course, Horace who recognises her from the ball a year ago. He does not tell anyone else but locks Angèle in a room where he hopes to keep her until she gives him an explanation. But Angèle is inadvertently freed by the housekeeper's lover, the drunken Gil Perez, who opens the door and runs off, having mistaken her for a demon in her mask and cloak. Angèle manages to slip undiscovered into the convent, where on the very same day she is to be installed as an abbess. Shortly before the ceremony, a letter from the queen frees her from her vows, which allows her to marry Horace and Ursule, her jealous rival for the office, to the chagrin of other nuns, is named the new abbess instead.

22 December 
Albert Lortzing Zar und Zimmermann

Zar und Zimmermann (Tsar and Carpenter)
is a comic opera in three acts, music by Albert Lortzing, libretto by the composer.

Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia    baritone 
Peter Ivanov, young Russian carpenter    tenor 
Van Bett, burgomaster of Saardam    bass 
Marie, daughter of van Bett    soprano 
Marquis de Chateauneuf, French ambassador    tenor 
Widow Browe, master carpenter    mezzo-soprano 
General Lefort, Russian ambassador    bass  
Lord Syndham, English ambassador    bass  
The action takes place in Saardam, Holland, in 1698.

Peter the Great of Russia, disguised as Peter Michaelov, a common laborer, is working in a shipyard in the Dutch town of Saardam, to learn shipbuilding techniques for his navy. He befriends a fellow Russian also working in the yard, Peter Ivanov, a deserter from the Russian army. Peter Ivanov is in love with Marie, the niece of Van Bett, the Burgomaster of Saardam. Tsar Peter is told of trouble in Russia, and decides to return home.

Van Bett has been told to find a foreigner named Peter in the shipyard. The English ambassador, Syndham, and the French ambassador, Chateauneuf, have both heard the rumor of Tsar Peter's disguised presence and are looking for him, which convinces Van Bett that "Peter" is an important man. But in confusion, he identifies the wrong Peter. Chateauneuf recognises the real Tsar, and concludes an alliance with him. Syndham is fooled and presents Peter Ivanov with a passport.

Van Bett, very confused, salutes Peter Ivanov with an elaborate ceremony. Peter Ivanov gives the passport to Tsar Peter, who uses it to leave quietly, having first blessed Peter Ivanov's marriage to Marie, and appointed him to a high office in Russia.

Albert Lortzing – Zar und Zimmermann

Mily Balakirev

Mily Balakirev

(b. Nizhni Novgorod, January 2, 1837; d. St. Petersburg, May 29, 1910)



Russian composer. He had piano lessons as a child and began composing as a teenager. Entirely self-taught as a composer (though strongly influenced by the music of Beethoven, Berlioz, Schumann, Liszt, and Glinka), he became the leading figure in the St. Petersburg group of composers known as the five or the “Mighty Handful,” encouraging, cajoling, and on some occasions browbeating the other members—Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky, and Cesar Cui (1835-1918).

As the group’s only full-time composer, he enjoyed prestige somewhat out of proportion to the actual quality of his music. Nonetheless, his “hands-on” combination of advice and advocacy was important to the development of a national musical style in late-19th-century Russia, and not just among the St. Petersburg composers: Tchaikovsky received detailed suggestions (some actually quite helpful) from Balakirev on the composition of his Romeo and Juliet Fantasy-Overture.

Balakirev’s best pieces, including his Symphony No. 1 (begun in 1864-66, set aside, and completed in 1893-97) and the piano fantasy Islamey (1869), blend advanced Western armony and native colorism in interesting and effective ways; their unorthodox melodic, rhythmic, and formal schemes, often derived from folk song, testify to the freshness of Balakirev’s thought.

Mily Balakirev - Symphony No.2 in D-minor (1908)

Russian State Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: Igor Golovschin

Mily Balakirev - Russia, symphonic poem (1864)

The State Academic Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: Evgeny Svetlanov

Mily Balakirev Work: Tamara, symphonic poem 
The State Academic Symphony Orchestra
Conductor: Evgeny Svetlanov

Mily Balakirev - Ouverture on a spanish march theme, Op.6 (1857)

Orchestra: The State Academic Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: Evgeny Svetlanov



Felix Mendelssohn – String Quartets Op. 44, No. 3 in D Major and No. 5 in E-Flat Major

Felix Mendelssohn - String Quartet D-major No. 3 Op. 44 No. 1

I. Molto allegro vivace
II. Menuetto. Un poco allegretto
III. Andante espressivo ma con moto
IV. Presto co brio

Artemis Quartet

Vineta Sareika, violin
Gregor Sigl, violin
Friedemann Weigle, viola
Eckhart Runge, cello

Mendelssohn - String Quartet No. 5 in E flat major, Op. 44, No. 3

Allegro vivace
Scherzo: Assai leggiero vivace
Adagio non troppo
Molto allegro con fuoco

Robert SchumannKinderszenen, Op. 15

Schumann - Kinderszenen (Scenes from Childhood) Op. 15
Martha Argerich, piano

Franz Liszt - "Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini"
Original version (1838), S. 140 – Dedicated to Madame Clara Schumann

Étude No. 1 in G minor (Preludio: Andante; Non troppo lento, cantabile) ("Tremolo") – after Paganini's 24 Caprices for Solo Violin #6 (with the introduction and coda of #5). 
Étude No. 2 in E-flat major (Andantino capricciosamente) – after the 17th caprice. 
Étude No. 3 in A-flat minor (Allegro moderato) – after the final movement of Paganini's Violin Concerto #2 in B minor, and containing the first theme of the final movement of Paganini's Violin Concerto No. 1 in E-flat major.
Étude No. 4 in E major (Andante quasi allegretto) – after the 1st caprice.
Étude No. 5 in E major (Allegretto, dolcissimo) ("La Chasse") – after the 9th caprice.
Étude No. 6 in A minor (Quasi presto, a capriccio) ("Theme and Variations") – after the 24th caprice, with a slightly altered theme and 11 variations. 

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 1
1. Tremolo. Preludio. Andante (G minor) based on Caprice No. 6 in G major

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 2
2. Octave. Andante (E♭ minor) based on Caprice No. 17 in E♭ major

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 3
3. Campanella. Allegro moderato (A♭ minor) based on the 24 Caprices for Solo Violin, Op.1, by Niccolò Paganini

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 4b
4b. Arpeggio. Andante quasi allegretto (E major), alternative version of No. 4a

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 5
5. La chasse. Allegretto (E major) based on Caprice No.9 in E major

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

Franz Liszt: Études d'exécution transcendante d'après Paganini, S.140 No. 6
6. Tema con Variazioni (A minor) based on Caprice No. 24 in A minor

Pf: Nikolai Petrov

6 January 
Max Bruch
, German composer, born.

28 July  
Bernhard Henrik Crusell, clarinet player and composer, dies.


10 September​ 
Hector BerliozBenvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini
is an opera semiseria in two acts[1] with music by Hector Berlioz and libretto by Léon de Wailly and Henri Auguste Barbier. It was the first of Berlioz's operas, premiered at the Académie Royale de Musique (Salle Le Peletier) on 10 September 1838.

Hector Berlioz – Benvenuto Cellini

Time: 1532
Place: Rome, during Carnival, over Shrove Monday, Mardi Gras, and Ash Wednesday.
Act 1
Tableau 1 (Balducci's residence)

Balducci has been summoned to a meeting with Pope Clement VII concerning the Pope's commission of a bronze statue of Perseus from the sculptor Benvenuto Cellini. Balducci would have preferred Fieramosca as the chosen sculptor, and also because he hopes to marry his daughter Teresa to Fieramosca. But Teresa is smitten with Cellini. Before Balducci goes to his meeting with the Pope, Cellini and other Carnival celebrators come on the scene, and pelt Balducci with fausses dragées (flour pellets) that make Balducci look "like a leopard". He can't clean himself off, however, so he continues to his meeting.

A bouquet of flowers comes through the window and lands at Teresa's feet. Attached is a note from Cellini saying that he is coming up. He does so, and explains his plan to take her away from her father so that they can live together. He and his assistant Ascanio will be disguised as monks, and will take her from her father during the Mardi Gras celebrations, when the Castel Sant'Angelo cannon is sounded to mark the end of Carnival. Unbeknownst to them both, Fieramosca has also entered the room, and tries to eavesdrop on them. He does not hear all the information on the first rendition, but he does on the second.

Upon hearing Balducci approach, Fieramosca hides in Teresa's bedroom, and Cellini hides behind the main room door. To distract her father, Teresa invents a story about a noise in her bedroom. Balducci goes into her bedroom, and Cellini escapes in the meantime. To Teresa's surprise, Balducci produces Fieramosca from the bedroom. He and Teresa call on the servants and neighbors to take Fieramosca and dump him outside in the fountain, but Fieramosca breaks free of the crowd.

Tableau 2 (Piazza Colonna)

Cellini, his apprentices and friends sing the praises of being goldsmiths. Bernardino asks for more wine, but the innkeeper demands settlement of their tab. Ascanio then appears with the Pope's advance payment for the Perseus statue, but also with a warning that the casting of the statue must occur the next day. The amount of money in the advance is less than expected, which gives new impetus to the plan to mock Balducci at Cassandro's booth that night.

Fieramosca has also overheard this plan, and confides to his friend Pompeo. Pompeo suggests that they too disguise themselves as monks and abduct Teresa themselves.

People gather in the piazza. A crowd assembles at Cassandro's booth, where "the pantomime-opera of King Midas or The Ass's Ears" is unfurled. Balducci and Teresa enter, soon after Cellini and Ascanio dressed as monks, and then Fieramosca and Pompeo similarly disguised. In the pantomime, Harlequin and Pierrot compete for the attention of King Midas, who is attired to look like Balducci. At this, the real Balducci approaches the stage, leaving Teresa alone. Both sets of "friars" then approach Teresa, to her confusion. The four friars begin to battle by sword, and in the struggle, Cellini fatally stabs Pompeo. The crowd becomes silent, and Cellini is arrested for murder. As he is about to be taken away, the three cannon shots from Castel Sant'Angelo are heard, indicating the end of Carnival and the start of Lent. All of the lights in the piazza are extinguished. During the darkness and resulting confusion, Cellini escapes his captors and Ascanio and Teresa go off. Fieramosca is then mistakenly arrested in Cellini's place.

Act 2
Tableau 1 (Ash Wednesday, Cellini's studio)

Ascanio and Teresa wait for Cellini in his studio. When a procession of friars passes by, they join in the prayer. Cellini then enters, still in monk's disguise, and recounts his escape. Because he is now wanted for murder, he plans to escape Rome with Teresa, but Ascanio reminds him of his obligation to cast the statue. Ascanio goes off to find a horse. Balducci and Fieramosca then appear. Balducci denounces Cellini as a murderer and then promises Teresa to Fieramosca in marriage.

The Pope then appears to check on the progress of the statue. Cellini makes excuses, but the Pope dismisses them and decides that he will give the commission to another sculptor. Cellini then threatens to destroy the mould, and when the Pope's guards approach him, he raises his hammer. The Pope then makes Cellini an offer: if Cellini can cast the statue that evening, he will forgive Cellini's crimes and let him marry Teresa. But if Cellini fails, he will be hanged.
Tableau 2 (Ash Wednesday, evening, Cellini's foundry)

After an aria from Teresa, Cellini comes on stage and muses on the quiet life of a shepherd. The workmen are at their labours and sing a sea-shanty, which Cellini sees as a bad omen. Ascanio and Cellini encourage the goldsmiths to continue their work. Fieramosca then arrives with two henchmen and challenges Cellini to a duel. Cellini accepts and asks to settle it on the spot, but Fieramosca prefers it to be done away from his workplace. Fieramosca and his men leave.

Teresa arrives and sees Ascanio hand Cellini his rapier, but Cellini assures her that he will be safe. Alone, she hears the workmen start to lay down their tools and stop work, as they have not been paid and lack direction from Cellini. She tries to assure them that they will be paid eventually, but to no avail. Fieramosca then appears, and Teresa faints, thinking that Cellini is dead. This is not so, as Fieramosca is about to offer a bribe to the goldsmiths to cease work completely. This turns the goldsmiths against Fieramosca and they reassert their loyalty to Cellini. Cellini then reappears, and he and the workmen force Fieramosca to don workclothes to help out.

In the evening, the Pope and Balducci arrive to see if the statue is completed. Fieramosca then announces that they are out of metal, which Francesco and Bernardino confirm. Balducci and Fieramosca are pleased at Cellini's impending failure. Cellini then prays, and in a moment of desperation, orders that all art works in his studio, of whatever metal, be put into the crucible and melted, to the consternation of Francesco and Bernardino. After this is done, an explosion blows the lid off the crucible. Then molten metal emerges to fill the mould, and the casting is successful. Balducci and Fieramosca acknowledge Cellini's success. The Pope pardons Cellini, and Cellini and Teresa are united. The opera closes with praise for the goldsmiths.

25 October
Georges Bizet, French composer, born.

Max Bruch

Max Bruch

(b. Cologne, January 6, 1838; d. Friedenau, October 2, 1920)


German composer. Taught the rudiments of music by his mother, a professional singer, he studied in Cologne with Ferdinand Hiller and Carl Reinecke, becoming a teacher himself at the age of 20. During the 1860s, he held conducting positions in Mannheim, Koblenz, and Sondershausen. While in Koblenz he composed his most frequently performed work, the Violin Concerto No. 1 in G minor (1866), revised in 1868 with input from Joseph Joachim; its soulful Adagio is among the most plangent expressions in the literature. Between 1868 and 1882 Bruch composed three symphonies, the rhapsody Kol Nidrei for cello and orchestra, and several works for violin and orchestra, including the Scottish Fantasy, written for Pablo de Sarasate. He taught at the Hochschule fur Musik in Berlin from 1890 until his retirement in 1911.

The aesthetic axis that runs between Mendelssohn and Richard Strauss crosses right through Bruch, as can be heard in the sonorous scoring and romantic sentiment of his orchestral music. A melodist of the first rank, he was by nature suited to the rhapsodic style of writing that characterizes his symphonies and concerted works. While in later years he devoted himself increasingly to the composition of sacred and secular cantatas, his fame has been assured by the lasting popularity of his works for violin and orchestra.


Max Bruch - Violin concerto in G minor, Op 26

Yehudi Menuhin, violin


Max Bruch - Scottish Fantasy

Nicola Benedetti, violin
BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra - Rory Macdonald

Max Bruch - Kol Nidrei, Op. 47, concertos Op 56, 61, 55, 44, 58

4 Peças de concerto para violoncelo e orquestra
1. Kol Nidrei, adagio nach hebräischen Melodien op. 47
2. Adagio nach keltischen Motiven op. 56
3. Ave Maria op. 61
4. Canzone op. 55

Concerto duplo para clarinete, viola e orquestra op. 88
5. Andante con moto
6. Allegro moderato
7. Allegro molto

Concerto N.2 D-moll op. 44
8. Adagio ma non troppo
9. Recitativo :Allegro moderato
10. Finale : Allegro molto

Concerto N.3 d-moll op.58
11. Allegro energico
12. Adagio
13. Finale Allegro molto



Robert Schumann:
Arabesque in C, Op. 18;
Blumenstück (Flower Piece) in D♭, Op. 19;
Humoreske in B♭, Op. 20;
4 Nachtstücke (Night Pieces)
, Op. 23;
Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op. 26;
3 Romances, Op. 28 (B♭ minor, F♯, B)

Robert Schumann - Arabesque in C major, Op. 18
Piano: Evgeny Kissin

Robert Schumann - Blumenstück {Flower Piece} in D flat major, Op. 19
Marios Panteliadis, piano

Robert Schumann: Humoreske Op. 20 
Alicia de Larrocha, piano

Robert Schumann "Nachtstücke" Op. 23
Claudio Arrau

Robert Schumann - Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op 26
Carnival Scenes from Vienna, Op 26

Sviatoslav Richter, piano

Robert Schumann - 3 Romances op 28
Catherine Collard (1979)

Johann Nepomuk Hummel – 2 Preludes and Fugue for Organ

Hummel - 2 Preludes and Fugue for Organ,Op.posth.7 Ab Cm
Sequenced by Mikio Tao

Felix Mendelssohn – Piano Trio No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 49

Felix Mendelssohn: Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor, Op. 49

1. Molto allegro ed agitato
2. Andante con moto tranquillo
3. Scherzo: Leggiero e vivace
4. Finale: Allegro assai appassionato

Matjaž Bogataj, violin
Maruša Bogataj, cello
Katharina Khodos, piano

Frédéric Chopin – Piano Sonata No. 2 "Funeral March"

Frédéric Chopin - Piano Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor, Op. 35, "The Funeral March"
Piano: Martha Argerich
0:00 - Grave – Doppio movimento
6:40 - Scherzo
12:45 - Marche funèbre: Lento
21:19 - Finale: Presto

9 January 
John Knowles Paine
, composer and musicologist, born.

21 March  
Modest Mussorgsky
, composer, born.


26 March 
Alexander DargomyzhskyEsmeralda
(Opera in Two Acts)

Dargomyzhsky - "Esmeralda" - Claude's Aria  
Aleksandr Ognivtsev

3 May  
Ferdinando Paer, composer, dies.


17 November 
Giuseppe Verdi Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio

Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio is an opera in two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on an existing libretto by Antonio Piazza probably called Rocester.

It was Verdi's first opera, written over a period of four years, and was first performed at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan, on 17 November 1839. 

Giuseppe Verdi - Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio

Ildar Abdrazakov - Oberto
Evelyn Herlitzius - Leonora
Carlo Ventre - Ricardo
Marianne Cornetti - Cuniza
Nuria Lorenzo - Imelda

Chorus of Ópera de Bilbao
Orchestra Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias
Yves Abel, conductor

Time: 1228
Place: Northern Italy, Bassano in the Ezzelino da Romano's Castle and nerby

Before the action takes place, a battle has been fought between Oberto, Count of San Boniface, and the Salinguerra, led by Ezzelino da Romano. Oberto has lost and has retreated to Mantua. Meanwhile, his daughter Leonora has been seduced and abandoned by Riccardo, Count of Salinguerra, and Riccardo is about to marry Cuniza, Ezzelino's sister. Leonora makes her way to Bassano on Riccardo's wedding day, intent on confronting him.

Act 1
Scene 1: The countryside near Bassano

Riccardo is welcomed by a chorus as he is about to enter Ezzelino's palace. He sings of his joy at being close to Cuniza (Son fra voi! Già sorto è il giorno...Già parmi udire il fremito – "Here I am amongst you! The day hasted by my desire has now arrived"). They enter the castle. Leonora arrives swearing to avenge Riccardo's desertion and she sings of the love which she had and a hope of recovering those innocent days (Sotto il paterno tetto...Oh potessi nel mio core- "Beneath my father's roof an angel appeared to me"). She leaves to go towards the village. Her father, Oberto, arrives, pleased to be back in his home country but unsure of Leonora's whereabouts. When Leonora returns, each is aware of the other's presence and father and daughter are reunited. They express amazement at having found each other again. But, Oberto's initial anger at Leonora's actions quickly turns to fatherly affection as the pair makes plans to disrupt the wedding.

Scene 2: A room in Ezzelino's palace

The chorus sings a welcome to the happy bride but, alone with Riccardo, Cuniza expresses some forebodings in spite of expressing her love for him. (Questa gioia che il petto m'inonda – "This joy that overwhelms my breast is mingled with a mysterious fear").

After the couple leaves, Leonora enters and is questioned by Imelda. Leonora tells her that her father, Oberto, is also in the palace and, when he enters, she tells Cuniza about her betrayal by Riccardo. Cuniza agrees to help them.

She then hides Oberto in a nearby room and invites Riccardo and his guests to join her. Upon entering, Cuniza reveals Leonora's presence and accuses her lover of infidelity. Riccardo's accusations against Leonora prompt her father to enter and challenge Riccardo to a duel.

Act 2
Scene 1: The princess's private apartments

Cuniza and Imelda are alone and the servant announces that Riccardo wishes to speak to her mistress. Cuniza laments the love she had, but following her aria, Oh, chi torna l'ardente pensiero – "Oh, who can turn my fevered thoughts", she instructs Imelda to tell Riccardo that he should return to Leonora, concluding in Più che i vezzi e lo splendore – "More persuasive to my conscience" that she has made the right decision.

Scene 2: A remote place near the castle gardens

The courtiers gather and express their sympathy for Leonora's plight. As they leave, Oberto enters, waiting for his rival to appear. He proclaims that he will seek vengeance: (Aria: L'orror del tradimento – "The horror of his betrayal"). The courtiers return to tell him that Cuniza has interceded on his behalf and that he has nothing to fear from Riccardo, but Oberto's thoughts still focus on vengeance. Riccardo finally arrives and they begin to fight, but are soon stopped by Cuniza who arrives with Leonora. Cuniza insists that Riccardo admit his infidelity and agrees to marry Leonora. Still determined to fight his rival, Oberto extracts an agreement from Riccardo that they will soon meet in the woods. Oberto leaves the group to go into the woods; all leave. Offstage, the sound of a duel in progress can be heard and it is followed by Riccardo's arrival. He realizes that he has killed Oberto (Aria: Ciel che feci? – "Heavens, what have I done!") and he is filled with remorse. Then Imelda and Cuniza appear explaining that Leonora is prostrate over the dead body of her father. Soon a letter arrives from Riccardo explaining that he has gone into exile leaving everything he possesses to Leonora. In her grief, she announces that she will become a hermit.

24 November 
Hector BerliozRomeo et Juliette

Hector Berlioz - Roméo et Juliette 
1. Introduction
2. Roméo seul
3. Nuit serène
4. Scherzo
5. Convoi funèbre de Juliette
6. Roméo au tombeau des Capulets -- Invocation
7. Finale
Door het Radio Filharmonisch Orkest, Groot Omroepkoor o.l.v. James Gaffigan (dirigent). M.m.v. Simon Halsey (koordirigent), Géraldine Chauvet (sopraan), Andrew Staples (tenor), Thomas Oliemans (bas). Opname vrijdag 23 maart 2012, Vredenburg Leidsche Rijn Utrecht. 


27 December
Gaetano DonizettiL'ange de Nisida

L'ange de Nisida (The Angel of Nisida) is an opera semiseria in four acts by Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti, from a libretto by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz.

The opera was reworked as La favorite in September 1840.

John Knowles Paine

John Knowles Paine

John Knowles Paine, (born Jan. 9, 1839, Portland, Maine, U.S.—died April 25, 1906, Cambridge, Mass.), composer and organist, the first American to win wide recognition as a composer and the first professor of music at an American university.


After a thorough musical grounding in Portland, Paine completed his studies in Berlin (1858–61). In 1861 he initiated a series of organ recitals and lectures in Boston that led to his appointment in 1862 as instructor (later professor) of music at Harvard University. The music department he organized there became a model for those of many other American universities.

Both as a teacher and as a composer he was a major influence on the development of music in the United States.

His works, generally modeled on the German classics, include two symphonies, a Mass in D (1866–67), and the oratorio St. Peter (1872).


Paine - Symphony No.1 in C-minor, Op.23 (1875) 

New York Philharmonic Orchestra - Zubin Mehta

John Knowles Paine - Symphony No. 2 (1879)

Paine - Mass in D-minor, Op.10 (1866)

Soprano: Carmen Balthrop
Contralto: Joy Blackett
Tenor: Vinson Cole
Bass: John Cheek

The Saint Louis Symphony Chorus

Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra -  Gunther Schuller



Louis Spohr – Symphony no 6 in G major, Op. 116 "Historical"

Ludwig Spohr - Symphony Nº6, Op. 116"Historical Symphony in the style and taste of four different periods."
I."The Age of Bach and Handel"(1720):
II."The Age of Haydn and Mozart":(1780):
III."Age of Beethoven":(1810):
IV."The Newest of the New"(1840):
Allegro vivace:6:32
Slovak State Philharmonic Orchestra(Kosice)/Alfred Walter

Robert Schumann's "year of song", in which he writes the two Liederkreis;
Frauenliebe und -leben;
He also marries Clara Wieck.

Robert Schumann -Liederkreis, Op.39,  
(Josef von Eichendorff)
00:00 1. In der Fremde
02:1 2. Intermezzo
04:2 3. Waldesgespräch
06:5 4. Die Stille
08:3 5. Mondnacht
13:1 6. Schöne Fremde
14:3 7. Auf einer Burg
17:4 8. In der Fremde
19:2 9. Wehmut
22:5 10. Zwielicht
26:5 11. Im Walde
28:0 12. Frühlingsnacht

Jessye Norman, soprano
Irwin Gage, piano

Robert Schumann - Frauenliebe und -leben, Op. 42 (Liederzyrklus nach Adalbert von Chamisso)
00:00 1. Seit ich ihn gesehen
02:45 2. Er, der Herrlichste von allen
05:45 3. Ich kann's nicht fassen, nicht glauben
07:35 4. Du Ring an meinem Finger
10:08 5. Helft mir, ihr Schwestern
11:58 6. Süßer Freund, du blickest mich verwundert an
16:53 7. An meinem Herzen, an meiner Brust
18:15 8. Nun hast du mir den ersten Schmerz getan

Elly Ameling, soprano
Dalton Baldwin, piano

Robert Schumann - Dichterliebe op.48
(Heinrich Heine)

Im wunderschönen Monat Mai 0:00
Aus meinen Tränen spriessen 1:38
Die Rose, die Lilie, die Taube 2:37
Wenn ich in deine Augen seh' 3:07
Ich will meine Seele tauchen 4:47
Im Rhein, im heiligen Strome 5:47
Ich grolle nicht 8:16
Und wüssten's die Blumen, die kleinen 9:59
Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen 11:11
Hör' ich ein Liedchen klingen 12:34
Ein Jüngling liebt ein Mädchen 14:25
Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen 15:28
Ich hab' im Traum geweinet 17:47
Allnächtlich im Traume seh' ich dich 20:22
Aus alten Märchen winkt es 22:05
Die alten, bösen Lieder 24:36

Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau
Jörg Demus, piano
Vienna, 1957

Felix MendelssohnSymphony No.2 in B flat, Op.52 ‘’Hymn of Praise’'(1840) B-dur ‘’Lobgesang’’ 

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy  - Symphonies
1-1824, 2-1840, 3-1842, 4-1833, 5-1830


Symphony No.1 in C minor, Op.11 (1824)
1.Allegro di molto (00:00)
2.Andante (07:43)
3.Menuetto - Allegro molto (14:29)
4.Allegro con fuoco (20:48)


Symphony No.2 in B flat, Op.52 ‘’Hymn of Praise’'(1840)
B-dur ‘’Lobgesang’’ 
Si bémol Majeur ‘’Chant des louanges’’ 
1.Sinfonia (29:15)
2.Alles was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn (54:46)
Lobt den Herrn mit Saitenspiel 
Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele 
3.Saget es, die ihr erlöst seid (1:01:53)
Er zählet unsre Tränen
4.Sagt es, die ihr erlöset seid (1:04:49)
5.Ich harrete des Herrn (1:06:56)
6.Stricke des Todes hatten uns umfangen (1:12:15)
7.Die Nacht ist vergangen (1:16:28)
8.Nun danket alle Gott (1:20:51)
Lob, Ehr’ und Preis sei Gott
9.Drum sing ich mit meinem Liede (1:24:49)
10.Ihr Völker! bringet her dem Herrn (1:29:26)
Alles danke dem Herrn
Alles was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn

Sopranos : Helen Donath & Rotraud Hansmann
Tenor : Waldemar Kmentt
New Philharmonia chorus
Chorus master : Wilhelm Pitz


Symphony No.3 in A minor, Op.56 ‘’Scottish’’ (1842)
a-moll ‘’Schottische Symphonie’’ 
la mineur ‘’Ecossaise’’ 
1.Andante con moto - Allegro un poco agitato (1:35:09)
Assai animato - Andante come prima
2.Vivace non troppo (1:50:33)
3.Adagio (1:54:50)
4.Allegro vivacissimo - Allegro maestoso assai (2:04:18)


Symphony No.4 in A, Op.90 ‘’Italian’' (1833)
A-dur ‘’Italienische Symphonie’’ 
La Majeur ‘’Italienne’'
1.Allegro Vivace (2:14:03)
2.Andante con moto (2:24:35)
3.Con moto moderato (2:31:00)
4.Saltarello (2:37:38)


Symphony No.5 in D minor, Op.107 ‘’Reformation’'(1830)
d-moll ‘’reformations-Symphonie’'
Ré mineur ‘’Réformation’’ 
1.Andante - Allegro con fuoco (2:43:32)
2.Allegro vivace (2:55:11)
3.Andante (3:01:13)
4.Choral : Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott ! (3:04:43)
Andante con moto - Allegro vivace
Allegro maestoso - Più animato poco a poco

New Philharmonia Orchestra 
Wolfgang Sawallisch
Stéréo recording in 1967, at London

Hector Berlioz - Grande symphonie funebre et triomphale.

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (Grand Funeral and Triumphal Symphony), Op. 15, is the fourth and last symphony by the French composer Hector Berlioz, first performed on 28 July 1840 in Paris. This symphony is one of the earliest examples of a symphony composed for wind band.

Berlioz - Symphonie funèbre et triomphale

I. Marche funèbre: Moderato un poco lento [0:00]
II. Oraison funèbre: Adagio non tanto [17:34]
- Andantino un poco lento e sostenuto [22:46]
III. Apothéose: Allegro non troppo e pomposo [25:52]

Dennis Wicks, trombone

John Alldis Choir
London Symphony Orchestra
Colin Davis

Giovanni Pacini - Saffo

Saffo is an opera in three acts by Giovanni Pacini set to a libretto by Salvadore Cammarano, which was based on a play by Franz Grillparzer, after the legend of the ancient Greek poet Sappho.

Saffo - Giovanni Pacini - 1840
Saffo - Leyla Gencer
Dirce - Vittoria Maniachi
Climene - Franca Mattiucci
Faone - Tito Del Bianco
Ippia - Mario Guggia
Alcandro - Louis Quilico
Lisimau - Maurizio Piacente

Conductor - Franco Capuana
Orchestra - Teatro di San Carlo di Napoli
Chorus - Teatro di San Carlo di Napoli

Place: Greece
Time: Antiquity

During the Poetic Games at the 42nd Olympiad (about 608 BC) a woman poet named Saffo sings so effectively against the practice of tossing felons and undesirables from a cliff on the Island of Leucadia in the hope that Apollo will catch them before they drown in the sea (the Leucadian Leap) that the god's high priest, Alcandro, is driven away in contempt. He vows to get revenge. The priest come upon Faone, a suitor of Saffo given to jealousy. At Alcandro's prompting, Faone denounces Saffo for preferring the poet Alceo to himself.

Later, with Saffo and Apollo being in conflict, she cultivates a friendship with Climene, the daughter of Alcandro, in order to seek the priest's intercession with the god. Saffo agrees to sing at Climene's wedding, but when she finds that the husband-to-be is Faone, the poet completely loses self-control, tries to break up the wedding, vandalizes Apollo's altar and is driven away.

Saffo turns up on the clifftop at Leucadia, convinced that her continuing love for Faone is a curse from Apollo. She intends to throw herself off the cliff in the hope that the god will catch her and remove the painful love. As required by custom, she identifies herself to Ippias, the curator of the Leap. He gives her the go-ahead to jump but an old man idling nearby has heard everything. He recognizes Saffo as Alcandro's long-lost daughter and therefore Climene's sister. Alcandro, Climene and Faone arrive. There is a happy reunion until Ippias points out that Saffo has made an agreement with Apollo from which she cannot back out. Saffo accepts her fate, bids farewell to everybody, and jumps. Climene faints. Faone has to be restrained from jumping, too. Apollo, still angry with her, allows Saffo to drown.

Sappho (c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos. Sappho is known for her lyric poetry, written to be sung and accompanied by a lyre. Most of Sappho's poetry is now lost, and what is extant has survived only in fragmentary form, except for one complete poem – the "Ode to Aphrodite". As well as lyric poetry, ancient commentators claimed that Sappho wrote elegiac and iambic poetry. Three epigrams attributed to Sappho are extant, but these are actually Hellenistic imitations of Sappho's style.


11 February  
Gaetano Donizetti – La Fille du Régiment (The Daughter of the Regiment) premieres in Paris.

La fille du régiment (The Daughter of the Regiment) is an opéra comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti, set to a French libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jean-François Bayard. It was first performed on 11 February 1840 by the Paris Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse.

Gaetano Donizetti  - La Fille du Régiment

Marie -  Joan Sutherland
Tonio -  Luciano Pavarotti
La Marquise de Berkenfield -   Monica Sinclair
Hortensius - Jules Bruyére
Sulpice - Spiro Malas
Le caporal - Eric Garrett
Le Duchesse Krakenthorp - Edith Cootes
Un paysan - Alan Jones

Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden 

Richard Bonynge, conductor

La figlia del reggimento - 2007, Wien
Marie - Natalie Dessay
Tonio - Juan Diego Florez
Marquise de Berkenfield - Janina Boechle
Sulpice - Carlos Alvarez
Hortensius - Clemens Unterreiner
Duchesse de Crakentorp - Montserrat Caballe
Chor der Wiener Staatsope

Conductor - Yves Abel

Time: The Napoleonic Wars, early 19th century
Place: The Swiss Tyrol

Act 1
Fighting is raging in the Tyrols and the Marquise of Berkenfield, who is traveling in the area, is alarmed to the point of needing smelling salts to be administered by her faithful steward, Hortensius. While a chorus of villagers express their fear, the Marquise does the same: Pour une femme de mon nom / "For a lady of my family, what a time, alas, is war-time". As the French can be seen to be moving away, all express their relief. Suddenly, and provoking the fear of the remaining women who scatter, Sergeant Sulpice of the Twenty-First Regiment of the French army [in the Italian version it is the Eleventh] arrives and assures everyone that the regiment will restore order.

Marie, the vivandière (canteen girl) of the Regiment, enters, and Sulpice is happy to see her: (Duet: Sulpice and Marie: Mais, qui vient? Tiens, Marie, notre fil / "But who is this? Well, well, if it isn't our daughter Marie".) Then, as he questions her about a young man she has been seen with, she identifies him as Tonio, a Tyrolean [in the Italian version: Swiss]. At that moment, Tonio is brought in as a prisoner, because he has been seen prowling around the camp. Marie saves him from the soldiers, who demand that he must die, by explaining that he had saved her life when she nearly fell while mountain-climbing. All toast Tonio, who pledges allegiance to France, and Marie is encouraged to sing the regimental song: (Aria: Chacun le sait, chacun le dit / "Everyone knows it, everyone says it".) Sulpice leads the soldiers off, taking Tonio with them, but he runs back to join her. She quickly tells him that he must gain the approval of her "fathers": the soldiers of the Regiment, who found her on the battlefield as an abandoned baby, and adopted her. Skeptical as to why Tonio has returned, he proclaims his love for her (Aria, then love duet with Marie: Depuis l'instant ou, dans mes bras / "Ever since that moment when you fell and / I caught you, all trembling in my arms...") and then the couple express their love for each other.

At that point, Sulpice returns, surprising the young couple who leave. The Marquise arrives with Hortensius, initially afraid of the soldier, but is calmed by him. The Marquise explains that they are trying to return to her castle and asks for an escort. When hearing the name Birkenfeld, Sulpice immediately recognizes it from a letter found with Marie as an infant. It is discovered that the Marquise's long-lost niece is actually Marie, who returns and is surprised to be introduced to her aunt. The Marquise commands that Marie accompany her and that she will be taught to be a proper lady. Marie bids farewell to her beloved regiment just as Tonio enters proclaiming that he has enlisted in their ranks: (Aria: Ah! mes amis, quel jour de fête / "Ah, my friends, what an exciting day".) In proclaiming his love for Marie, the soldiers are horrified, but agree to his pleading for her hand. However, they tell him that she is about to leave with her aunt: (Marie, aria: Il faut partir / "I must leave you!"). In a choral finale in which all join, she leaves with the Marquise and Tonio is enraged.

Act 2
Marie has been living in the Marquise's castle for several months. In a conversation with Sulpice, the Marquise describes how she has sought to modify most of her military manners and make her into a lady of fashion, suitable for her to be married to her nephew, the Duke of Crakentorp. Although reluctant, Marie has agreed and Sulpice is asked to encourage her. Marie enters and is asked to play the piano, but appears to prefer more martial music when encouraged by Sulpice and sings the regimental song. The Marquise sits down at the piano and attempts to work through the piece with Marie who becomes more and more distracted and, along with Sulpice, takes up the regimental song.

Marie is left alone: (Aria: Par le rang et par l'opulence / "They have tried in vain to dazzle me"). As she is almost reconciled to her fate, she hears martial music, and is joyously happy: (Cabaletta: Oh! transport! oh! douce ivresse / "Oh bliss! oh ectasy!") and the Regiment arrives. With it is Tonio, now an officer. The soldiers express their joy at seeing Marie, and Marie, Tonio and Sulpice are joyfully reunited, although he tries to tell her something she does not know but is ignored: (Trio, Marie, Sulpice, Tonio: Tous les trois réunis / "We three are reunited"). The Marquise enters, horrified to see soldiers. Tonio asks for Marie's hand, explaining that he risked his life for her: (Aria, Tonio: Pour me rapprocher de Marie, je me enrôlai, pauvre soldat / "In order to woo Marie, I enlisted in the ranks") but she dismisses him scornfully. Tonio and Marie leave separately, and the Marquise confesses the truth to Sulpice: Marie is her own illegitimate daughter. In the circumstances, Sulpice promises that Marie will agree to her mother's wishes.

The Duchess and her nephew arrive and Marie enters with Sulpice, who has given her the news that the Marquise is her mother. Marie embraces her and decides she must obey. But at the last minute the soldiers of the Regiment storm in (Chorus: soldiers, then Tonio: Au secours de notre fille / "Our daughter needs our help") and it is revealed that Marie was a canteen girl. Indignantly, the Duchess leaves, but the other guests are impressed when Marie sings of her debt to the soldiers: (Aria, Marie: Quand le destin, au milieu de la guerre / "When fate , in the confusion of war, threw me, a baby, into their arms"). The Marquise is deeply moved, admits she is Marie's mother, and gives her consent to Marie and Tonio, amid universal rejoicing. (Final chorus: Salut a la France! / "Hurrah for France! For Happy times!"

7 May  
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
, composer, born.


27 May 
Niccolò Paganini, violinist and composer, dies, aged 57


5 September​ 
Giuseppe VerdiUn giorno di regno

Giuseppe Verdi - Un giorno di regno

Guido Loconsolo - Il Cavaliere di Belfiore
Andrea Porta - Il Barone di Kelbar
Anna Caterina Antonacci - La Marchesa del Poggio
Alessandra Marianelli - Giulietta di Kelbar
Ivan Magrì - Edoardo di Sanval
Paolo Bordogna - Il Signor la Rocca
Ricardo Mirabelli - Il Conte Ivrea
Seung-Hwa Paek - Delmonte

Teatro Regio di Parma Chorus and Orchestra
Donato Renzetti, conductor

Teatro Regio di Parma, 2010

[The Polish monarch, King Stanisław Leszczyński, an historical figure during the War of Succession, lost his throne after the Saxon invasion at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. He regained it in 1733, but was again deposed in 1736 and went into exile in France. The opera is set in 1733 when Stanislaw returned to Poland leaving a French officer, the Cavaliere di Belfiore, to impersonate him in France.]

Time: 1733
Place: Baron Kelbar's castle near Brest, France

Act 1
Scene 1: A gallery in the home of Baron Kelbar 

Belfiore, impersonating the Polish king Stanislaus, is a guest at the home of Baron Kelbar and he comments to himself on his change of fortune: Compagnoni di Parigi...Verrà purtroppo il giorno / "If only my old comrades in Paris could see me now, the most dissolute officer in the regiment turned philosopher king." [16] The Baron has recently arranged a political alliance by betrothing his daughter, Giulietta, to La Rocca, the Brittany Treasurer, but Giulietta prefers La Rocca's nephew, Edoardo. Another undesired marriage involves Baron Kelbar's niece, the Marchesa del Poggio, a young widow who is in love with Belfiore. She has become engaged to the Count of Ivrea because Belfiore has been unable to commit himself to marrying her, in spite of the fact that he does love her.

Knowing of the Marchesa's imminent arrival and concerned that she might reveal his false identity as the King, Belfiore writes to Stanislaw and asks to be released from his commitment. Edoardo reveals his predicament to the "King" and begs to be taken to Poland with him in order to forget about the woman he loves. In addition, when the Marchesa arrives and, upon being introduced to Belfiore as "the King", she pretends not to recognize him. Likewise, he pretends not to recognize her, but she is determined to test him by proclaiming her love for the Count: Grave a core innamorato...Se dee cader la vedova / " ".

Scene 2: The Garden of Kelbar's castle

Giulietta is alone with her attendants and expresses unhappiness in having to marry an old man: ’Non san quant'io nel petto...Non vo' quel vecchio / " “. When Baron Kelbar and Treasurer La Rocca arrive, followed in succession by Belfiore and Edoardo and then the Marchesa (who was planning to help the lovers), Belfiore draws the Baron and Treasurer La Rocca away on the pretext of discussing state business, leaving the young lovers alone with the Marchesa.

Scene 3: The gallery of Kelbar’s castle

Maintaining his role as the King, Belfiore makes the Treasurer an offer of advancement which would include marriage to a rich widow. By accepting, he agrees not to marry Giulietta. When the Treasurer tells Baron Kelbar that he refuses to marry his daughter, the Baron is affronted and challenges him to a duel. To add to the confusion all around, the Marchesa immediately proposes that Giulietta and Edoardo be married immediately. However, the false King returns and proposes that he will decide on a solution that will satisfy everyone.

Act 2
Scene 1: The gallery of Kelbar’s castle

Following the "King's" pronouncement, the servants are mystified and they sing a carefree chorus which leads to Edoardo seeking their support and announcing his hope of still be able to marry Giulietta: Pietoso al lungo pianto...Deh lasciate a un alma amante / " ".

Belfiore, the Treasurer, and Giulietta enter discussing the reasons for Baron Kelbar's opposition to his daughter's marriage to Eduardo. Giulietta explains that the young man's poverty is the main objection and so Belfiore immediately rules that the Treasurer must give up one of his castles and give over a sum of money to the young man, and then all will be well. The latter is somewhat reluctant to disobey his sovereign, but seeks a way out of his duel with Baron Kelbar.

Scene 2: A veranda overlooking the castle gardens

Belfiore and the Marchesa meet on the veranda, the former still unable to reveal who he really is. This incenses the lady, who boldly states that it is her intention to marry the Count of Ivrea. However, she cannot understand why Belfiore is taking so long to reveal himself and still hopes for his change of heart: (andante) Si mostri a chi l'adora... / " ". When Count Ivrea is announced, she takes a defiant stand (cabaletta): Si, scordar saprò l'infido / " ". Since Eduardo has pledged to join the "King" when he goes to Poland, Giulietta is determined to get the King to rescind the commitment. The Count enters and the Marchesa once again states that she will marry the Count. However, Belfiore immediately forbids the marriage for 'reasons of state' and announces that he and the Count must leave for Poland to deal with state business.

All express their feelings, but things come to a halt when a letter arrives for Belfiore. It is from King Stanislaw announcing his safe arrival in Warsaw and releasing Belfiore from his task of impersonating him. In return, the King has created him Marshal. Before dropping the disguise, the "King" proclaims that Giulietta and Eduardo are to be married and, having received Baron Kelbar's consent, reads the true king's letter and reveals his true rank. He expresses his love for the Marchesa and all ends happily with the prospect of two weddings.

30 September  
Johan Svendsen
, violinist, conductor and composer, born.

Johan Svendsen

Johan Svendsen

Johan Severin Svendsen (30 September 1840 – 14 June 1911) was a Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist. Born in Christiania (now Oslo), Norway, he lived most his life in Copenhagen, Denmark. Svendsen's output includes two symphonies, a violin concerto, a cello concerto, and the Romance for violin, as well as a number of Norwegian Rhapsodies for orchestra. At one time Svendsen was an intimate friend of the German composer Richard Wagner.


His father was a music teacher and Svendsen learned both the violin and clarinet from him. By the time he finished school, he was working as an orchestral musician, and occasionally made short concert tours as a violinist. 

He was conductor of the Musical Society Concerts in Christiania (1872–77), then spent three years in Germany, Italy, England and France. He returned to teach and conduct in Kristiania (1880–1883). In 1883, he was appointed principal conductor of the Royal Theater Orchestra in Copenhagen, where he lived until his death.

In stark contrast to his more famous contemporary and close friend, Edvard Grieg, Svendsen was famous for his skill of orchestration rather than that of harmonic value. While Grieg composed mostly for small instrumentation, Svendsen composed primarily for orchestras and large ensembles. His most famous work is his Romance for violin and orchestra, Op. 26. He was very popular in Denmark and Norway during his lifetime, both as a composer and a conductor, winning many national awards and honors. However this popularity did not translate into acceptance into the international repertory of classical music. He died in Copenhagen, aged 70.


Johan Svendsen -  Symphony Nº 1 in D major, Op.4

Oslo Philharmonic  Orchestra - Mariss  Jansons

Johan Svendsen - Symphony Nº2 in B flat major, Op.15 (1874).

Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra - Mariss  Jansons

Johan Svendsen : Four Norwegian Rhapsodies for orchestra (1876-77)
Norwegian Rhapsody No. 1 Op. 17 (1876) 00:00-10:25
Norwegian Rhapsody No. 2 Op. 19 (1876) 10:25-20:40
Norwegian Rhapsody No. 3 Op. 21 (1876) 20:40-30:35
Norwegian Rhapsody No. 4 Op. 22 (1877) 30:35-43:55
Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra - Karsten Andersen

Johan Svendsen - Four Pieces for orchestra

1. Festival Polonaise, for orchestra Op. 12 (1873) 
2. Variations on a Norwegian folktune, for string orchestra Op. 31 (1874) 
3. Solitude (after Ole Bull), for string orchestra (1873) 
4. Norwegian Artists' Carnival, for orchestra Op. 14 (1874) 

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra - Per Dreier, conductor

Eugène Delacroix – Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George Sand

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