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Romantic Era


Thousands rush to gold in Australia, including Chinese prospectors and prospectors from California. There are tent cities with populations as large as 40,000. Food growers have a greater market for their produce, stimulating Australia's economy. An agricultural revolution is beginning using a mechanical harvester, called Ridley's Stripper, that had been invented in Australia
  •  In Siam, King Mongkut ascends the throne. He invites European diplomats to his coronation. He becomes known for speaking English, French and Latin  •  Herman Melville's Moby-Dick has been published. He would like to see people lower their conceit and look for happiness and meaning in the small things that make a life well-lived  •  Herman Melville (US) - Moby Dick

The novel Uncle Tom's Cabin is published. In the South complaints arise that the novel is exaggeration. In the South, owning a copy of the book is made illegal
  •  The British arrive in lower Burma and bring opium from India for sale to the Burmese  •  In the United States, Francis Wolle invents and patents a machine that makes paper bags  •  Britain recognizes the right of Boers to administer their own affairs beyond its Cape Colony border so long as the Boers end slavery  •  Louis-Napoleon (Bonaparte's nephew), President of France's Second Republic, has consolidated conservative support and dissolves parliament. He crushes an uprising, establishes a dictatorship and holds a plebiscite to justify his move. Peasants and the religiously devout give him the votes he wants   •   John Everett Millais - Ophelia

Louis-Napoleon is declared Emperor Napoleon III.  He would like to create a dynasty. France is no longer a republic. It is called the Second Empire
  •  The Frenchman Joseph Gobineau has two volumes of his work published, a work about the fall of civilizations that he believes is based on science. Degeneration he claims came with conquerors mixing with those they had conquered, polluting the purity of the conquerors' race. Jews he holds had once been biologically pure but they had become "bestialized" and a threat by having mixed with Africans  •  Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan with 967 men on four ships, including two steam-powered vessels, which intimidates the Japanese. He demands that Japan open its ports to trade with the United States. He declares that he will return the following year to receive Japan's response  •  Tsar Nicholas I of Russia goes to war against the Ottoman Turks over what he sees as his right to defend Orthodox Christians in Turkey and in Jerusalem (then under the authority of the Ottoman Empire).

The Japanese government signs a treaty with the United States that offers "peace and friendship," the opening to two ports (Shimoda and Hakodate), help for US ships wrecked off Japan's coast, protection for shipwrecked persons, and permission for US ships to buy provisions
  •   Imperial Britain and France are afraid of Russian expansion. At a Turkish port on the Black Sea, the Russian navy, using exploding shells for the first time, sets a Turkish fleet afire. The British respond with horror to the devastation. The British declare war, and Queen Victoria writes of "the great sinfulness" of Russia having "brought about this War" – the Crimean War  •  Pope Pius IX addresses a question about differences between Jesus Christ and others. He proclaims the infallible doctrine of the Immaculate Conception (virgin birth) of Jesus Christ, that Jesus was born exempt from all stain of original sin  •  Elisha Graves Otis has invented an elevator brake and has started a company to manufacture elevators that will hoist freight. He demonstrates the elevator at the World's Fair in New York City  •  The scientist John Snow had been claiming that cholera was carried in water or food and could be ingested. Colleagues have dismissed his idea. A cholera epidemic has broken out in London, in an area around a water pump. Snow takes a sample of the water from the pump and through a microscope finds it contaminated. He removes the pump's handle and the cholera comes to a quick end

Much of Japan's capital, Edo (Tokyo), is destroyed by earthquake, tsunami and fire
  •  King Mongkut of Siam signs a trade agreement with Britain. He builds roads, sets up printing presses, creates a currency and sets out to reform slavery  •  Chicago adopts a plan for the first comprehensive city sewer in United States



Herman Melville[a] (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. His best known works include Typee (1846), a romantic account of his experiences in Polynesian life, and his whaling novel Moby-Dick (1851).



Johannes Brahms:
Scherzo in E-flat minor for solo piano, Op. 4
Heimkehr (Homecoming) for voice and piano, Op. 7 No. 6

Brahms - Scherzo in E-flat minor Op.4
Claudio Arrau, piano

Four Songs by Johannes Brahms 
- Vorüber
- Serenade
- Heimkehr
- Auf dem See
Barry McDaniel

Robert Schumann:
Symphony No. 4;
Violin Sonata No. 1;
Violin Sonata No. 2;
Der Rose Pilgerfahrt, oratorio;
Piano Trio No. 3;
7 Lieder, Op. 104;
3 Fantasiestücke, for piano;
Märchenbilder, for piano and viola

Schumann - Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 120
Conductor: Daniel Barenboim
Staatskapelle Berlin

0:01 - Ziemlich langsam - Lebhaft
11:32 - Romanze: Ziemlich langsam
16:47 - Scherzo: Lebhaft
23:39 - Langsam; Lebhaft

Robert Schumann - Violin Sonata No. 1, Op. 105 
Ara Malikian, violin and Serouj Kradjian, piano

Robert Schumann - Violin Sonata No.2, Op. 121 
Ara Malikian, violin and Serouj Kradjian, piano

Robert Schumann - Der Rose Pilgerfahrt
Oratorium für Solostimmen, Chor und Orchester

Rosa, Helen Donath, sopran
Sopran solo, Kari Lovaas
Fürstin der Elfen, Julia Hamari
Tenor solo, Theo Altmeyer
Müller, Bruno Pola, bariton
Totengräber und Bass solo, Hans Sotin

Chor der Städtischen Musikvereins Düsseldorf
Düsseldorfer Symphoniker
Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos, Dirigent

Schumann - Trio for piano, violin and cello Op. 110

The Munich Dvorak Trio
Gitti Pirner, piano
Janos Maté, violin
Franz Amann, cello

I. Bewegt, doch nicht zu rasch (00:00)
II. Ziemlich langsam / Etwas bewegter / Erstes Tempo (7:13)
III. Rasch / Etwas Zuruckhaltend bis zum langsameren Tempo / Erstes Tempo (13:21)
IV. Kräftig, mit Humor (17:03)

Schumann: 7 Lieder nach Elisabeth Kulmann op.104
1.Mond, meiner Seele Liebling
2.Viel Glück zur Reise, Schwalben
3.Du nennst mich armes Mädchen
4.Der Zeisig
5.Reich mir die hand, oh Wolke
6.Die letzten Blumen starben
7.Gekämpft hat meine Barke

Roger Braun, piano, 1996

Robert Schumann - 3 Fantasiestücke, Op 111   

Fabio Martino, piano 

Robert Schumann - Marchenbilder op. 113
Tabea Zimmermann viola, Christian Ihle Hadland piano

Franz Liszt:
Transcendental Études for Piano, S 139;
Grandes études de Paganini

Liszt - Transcendental Etudes, S139
Claudio Arrau
1. Transcendental Etude in C major 'Preludio'
2. Transcendental Etude in A minor ‘Molto vivace’ 
3. Transcendental Etude in F major 'Paysage' 
4. Transcendental Etude in D minor 'Mazeppa' 
5. Transcendental Etude in B♭ major 'Feux follets' 
6. Transcendental Etude in G minor 'Vision' 
7. Transcendental Etude in E♭ major 'Eroica' 
8. Transcendental Etude in C minor 'Wilde Jagd' 
9. Transcendental Etude in A♭ major 'Ricordanza' 
10. Transcendental Etude in F minor  ‘Allegro agitato molto’
11. Transcendental Etude in D♭ major 'Harmonies du soir' 
12. Transcendental Etude in B♭ minor  'Chasse-neige' 

Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, S.141
00:00 – No.1 in G Minor
05:12 – No.2 in E-flat Major
10:40 – No.3 in G-sharp Minor, “La Campanella”
15:29 – No.4 in E Major
17:22 – No.5 in E Major
20:21 – No.6 in A Minor
Daniil Trifonov - Piano

20 January 
Albert LortzingDie Opernprobe
Comic opera in one act on a libretto by the composer after Philippe Poisson

Albert Lortzing - Die Opernprobe

Regina Marheineke Soprano
Kari Lovaas Soprano
Gisela Litz Mezzo-soprano
Nicolai Gedda Tenor
Klaus Hirte Baritone
Walter Berry Bass

Choir and Orchester der Bayerischen Staatsoper München 
Otmar Suitner Conductor

Salon with view onto the palace grounds. The old Count is an inveterate music buff with a foible for opera so great that he frequently converses in recitative. More to the point, he regularly mounts opera performances in his palace, whose domestic staff consists entirely of singers and instrumentalists. The conductor is Hannchen , the pretty chambermaid of the Count’s daughter, Comtesse Louise. Hannchen stops the orchestral rehearsal at the appearance of the footman Martin, who has been paid a detective’s fee of one gulden to discover the identities of two strangers loitering for days on the palace grounds. But Martin is none the wiser; on the contrary, he feels that they have been squeezing information out of him. The two travelers again appear in the garden and approach the veranda, allowing Hannchen to eavesdrop on their conversation. She learns that they are Baron Adolph von Reinthal and his manservant Johann. The young Baron has run away from his uncle rather than follow the latter’s wish to enter a marriage of convenience with a girl he has never even met. Now he is seeking an opportunity to make the acquaintance of the Count’s pretty daughter, with whom he has fallen in love from afar. Informed by Johann of the Count’s operatic whims, Adolph, who has a presentable voice and has conveniently brought along his guitar, resolves to pose with his servant as “wandering singers.” While the two men retire to a Jewish haberdashers to deck themselves out as “artists,” Hannchen passes the fruits of her eavesdropping on to the Comtesse, who is none other than the bride the old Baron von Reinthal has chosen for his nephew – the very girl Adolph has been trying to avoid! The two “singers” are promptly welcomed by the Count in the friendliest terms, all the more so as his own tenor has momentarily lost his voice. The Countess asks them to present examples of their skills. First Adolph sings a love song, to universal applause. When Johann steps up to sing, Adolph comes to his aid, and the two men, to the delight of Hannchen and Louise, improvise a scene in recitative from the fictitious opera Die verkleideten Liebhaber (“The Incognito Lovers»), which the Count finds most interesting. As the lords and domestics finally assemble for the dress rehearsal, old Baron von Reinthal unexpectedly arrives for a visit. Adolph and his wily servant deftly escape the imbroglio in another improvised scene in recitative. Then all drop their disguises, and instead of the scheduled opera performance there is a banquet for the betrothal of two happy couples who have quickly reached a sweet understanding: Louise-Adolph and Hannchen-Johann.

21 January  
Albert Lortzing, composer, dies.


24 January  
Gaspare Spontini, composer, dies.


9 March 
Joachim RaffKönig Alfred
"Grand Heroic Opera in Four Acts" WoO. 14

Joachim Raff - König Alfred  - Overture

Roland Kluttig and the Symphony Orchestra of Norrlands Opera

Alfred, King of the Anglo-Saxons (baritone) 
Editha, his sister (soprano) 
Sigbert & Edmund, Anglo-Saxon chieftains (tenors) 
Osrik, Count of Lincoln (bass) 
Guthrun, King of the Normans (bass) 
Gunilde, his daughter (soprano) 
Osburga, Editha’s confidante (soprano)

Chorus: Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Editha’s Attendants and The People.
England in 878.


Act 1
Sunset. In the Anglo-Saxon Camp in the woods on the Isle of Athelney, in the River Tone in Somerset. The fugitive King Alfred is despondent because of the suffering which his subjects are enduring at the hands of the invading Normans, but Sigbert and Edmund urge him to fight on. Edmund declares his love for Editha, but Alfred reveals that he long ago promised her to his old friend, Count Osrik. Edmund regards Osrik as a coward, hiding from the fighting, but then the Count arrives to claim his bride. Editha, appalled at the prospect, persuades Alfred to allow her to defer her agreement and, whilst she and Edmund bemoan their fate, Osrik recognises that he must use guile to secure Editha's hand. Arthur gives Sigbert command of the camp's defences but soon afterwards Osrik, who is a traitor, approaches Sigbert with an offer from the Normans to betray Alfred. Edmund overhears the plotters as Sigbert agrees to Osrik's plan.

Act 2
Inside the royal tent, the next day. Alfred decides to attack the Normans and, needing information about their army, he asks Osrik to spy on them. When the Count leaves the council, Edmund urgently begs the king to take back command of the army and tells him of Osrik and Sigbert's treachery, but Alfred accuses him of jealousy. Osrik returns and Alfred, uncertain who to believe, tells him of Edmund's accusation. A guard is called and Edmund is lead away in chains. Alfred then agrees to Osrik's request that Sigbert accompany him on his spying mission. Left alone, Alfred is joined by Editha who urges him to believe Edmund, reminding him of her lover's past loyalty. As Alfred wavers, they both appeal to God for help and guidance.

Act 3
At a banquet in the hall in Chippenham Castle, Alfred's former residence, which has been captured by the Normans. Alfred enters, disguised as an old harp player and is dismayed to see Osrik and Sigbert amongst his enemies. Guthrun commands him to entertain them all and he sings a patriotic song. Osrik, irritated at being thus reminded of his treason, commands Alfred to stop and goes on to ask Guthrun for Gunilde's hand as a reward for his treachery, to which the Norman king agrees. They leave. Gunilde is as appalled by this as she is at her father's dishonourable reliance on traitors. She decides to send Alfred a warning and, looking around for someone to take it, sees the harpist. Alfred agrees to be her messenger and in thanks she gives him a ring. Overcome by his feelings for her, he is about to reveal his true identity when Guthrun and the traitors return and demand that the harpist predict their futures. He tells Guthrun that his depends upon his wisdom, but that bad fates await Osrik and Sigbert. This provokes such anger that Alfred fears for his life, but Gunilde says that the harpist is only the mouthpiece of the gods and that she will protect him with her own life. Hiding behind her, Alfred escapes the hall.

Act 4
The camp on Athelney. Editha and the women are awaiting news of the battle. The victorious Anglo-Saxons appear, leading Guthrun, Osrik and the Normans in chains. Alfred declares England to be free and apologises to Edmund, who has killed Sigbert in the fighting, for doubting him. He leads Edmund to Edith and they embrace. As the price of his freedom, Alfred asks Guthrun for Gunilde's hand and shows her the ring she gave him. Recognising him as the harpist, she agrees to be his queen. The Normans are relieved of their chains. Osrik, sickened by the turn of events, wishes for death but Alfred exiles him abroad. The opera closes to the Anglo-Saxons singing the patriotic song sung by Alfred whilst in his harpist disguise.


Anton Rubinstein – Symphony No. 2 (Ocean) (first version)

Rubinstein Symphony no 2 in C major, Op. 42 "Ocean"

Jacques Offenbach – Concerto Rondo for cello and orchestra.

Offenbach - Concerto rondo in G major for cello and orchestra
Cincinatti Pops Orchestra. Erich Kunzel, 1983

27 March 
Vincent d'Indy, composer, born.

16 April 
Charles GounodSapho 

is a 3-act opera by Charles Gounod to a libretto by Émile Augier which was premiered by the Paris Opera at the Salle Le Peletier on 16 April 1851. It was presented only 9 times in its initial production, but was a succès d'estime for the young composer, with the critics praising Act 3 in particular.[2] It was later revived in 2-act (1858) and 4-act (1884) versions, achieving a total of 48 performances.

Charles Gounod - SAPHO

Sapho    mezzo-soprano    Pauline Viardot  
Glycère    mezzo-soprano    Anne Poinsot 
Œnone    mezzo-soprano   
Phaon    tenor    
Pythéas    bass    
Alcée    baritone   
Pittacus    bass    
Cynégire    bass   
Cratés    tenor 
Agathon    tenor   
High Priest    bass  
A shepherd    tenor  
People, young people, conspirators
The story of the opera is based on the legends of the Greek poet Sappho, her love for Phaon and her suicide.

Place: Olympic Games and on the isle of Lesbos
Time: 6th century BC

Act 1
The Olympic games

Phaon is torn in love between the poet Sapho and the courtesan Glycère, and is teased by Pythéas. Sapho wins the poetry competition from Alcée. Phaon declares his devotion to her.

Act 2
Phaon's villa

Phaon is involved in a revolutionary plot to establish freedom and justice. Pythéas agrees to supply details of the plot to Glycère in return for her favours. Glycère secretly informs the authorities, but deceitfully tells Sapho she will not inform if Phaon leaves Lesbos without Sapho. Phaon arranges to leave Lesbos, Sapho maintaining that she will not accompany him. Her inflexibility causes Phaon to turn to Glycère.

Act 3
A windswept beach with the setting sun

Phaon, Glycère and the conspirators bid farewell to their country. Sapho has come to bid them farewell but Phaon curses her. Nonetheless she forgives and blesses Phaon, and then commits suicide by leaping into the ocean.

Vincent d'Indy

Vincent d'Indy

Vincent d’Indy, in full Paul-Marie-Théodore-Vincent d’Indy, (born March 27, 1851, Paris, France—died Dec. 1, 1931, Paris), French composer and teacher, remarkable for his attempted, and partially successful, reform of French symphonic and dramatic music along lines indicated by César Franck.


D’Indy studied under Albert Lavignac, Antoine Marmontel, and Franck (for composition). In 1874 he was admitted to the organ class of the Paris Conservatoire, and in the same year his second Wallenstein Overture was performed. He considered French 19th-century music and the tradition of the Paris Opéra, of the Paris Conservatoire, and of French “decorative” symphony to be superficial, frivolous, and unworthy to compete with the Teutonic Bach-Beethoven-Wagner tradition. The character of his own music revealed meticulous construction but also a certain lyricism. His harmony and counterpoint were laboriously worked out, but in his later work, free and unorthodox rhythms came easily and fluidly.

D’Indy’s most important stage works were Le Chant de le Cloche (1883; “The Song of the Clock”), Fervaal (1895), Le Légende de Saint Christophe (1915; “The Legend of Saint Christopher”), and Le Rêve de Cinyras (1923; “The Dream of Cinyras”). Among his symphonic works, Symphonie sur un chant montagnard français (1886; “Symphony on a French Mountaineer’s Chant”), with solo piano, based entirely on one of the folk songs d’Indy had collected in the Ardeche district, and Istar (variations; 1896) represent his highest achievements. His 105 scores also include keyboard works, secular and religious choral writings, and chamber music. Among the latter are some of his best compositions: Quintette (1924); a suite for flute, string trio, and harp (1927); and the Third String Quartet (1928–29). He also made arrangements of the hundreds of folk songs that he collected in the Vivarais.

In 1894 d’Indy became one of the founders of the Schola Cantorum in Paris. It was through courses at this academy that he spread his theories and initiated the revival of interest in Gregorian plainchant and music of the 16th and 17th centuries. D’Indy also published studies of Franck (1906), Ludwig van Beethoven (1911), and Richard Wagner (1930). In France, Paul Dukas, Albert Roussel, and Déodat de Sévérac were among his disciples. Outside France, particularly in Greece, Bulgaria, Portugal, and Brazil, his influence was lasting upon composers interested in shaping folk music into symphonic forms.


Vincent D'Indy - Symphony No. 1 "Italienne" (1870)
Conducted by Rumon Gamba with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra. 

Vincent d'Indy: Symphonie No. 2 en Si bémol majeur Op. 57 (1902-03)
Orchestre Royal-National d’Écosse sous la direction de / Royal Scottish National Orchestra conducted by / Real Orquesta Nacional Escocesa dirigida por Thor Svedlund.

Vincent D'Indy - Symphonie sur un chant montagnard française, op. 25
iano: Aldo Ciccolini
Orchestre National de la Radiodissusion Française
Conductor: André Cluytens, 1953

Vincent D'Indy - La forêt enchantée (1878)
Conducted by Rumon Gamba with the Iceland Symphony Orchestra

Vincent d'Indy - Sonata in E Major, Op. 63 (1907)
Diane Andersen, 2014



Johannes Brahms – Piano Sonata No. 2 

Johannes Brahms - Piano Sonata No. 2 in F sharp minor, Op. 2

00:00 - I. Allegro non troppo, ma energico 
05:41 - II. Andante con espressione 
11:33 - III. Scherzo: Allegro -- Poco più moderato 
15:23 - IV. Finale: Sostenuto -- Allegro non troppo e rubato -- Molto sostenuto 
Peter Rösel 
-  1974 

24 March 
Fredrik PaciusKung Karls jakt

Kung Karls jakt (King Charles' Hunt) is an opera with music by Fredrik Pacius and a libretto by Zacharias Topelius. It was the first opera to be composed in Finland. Kung Karls jakt was first performed in Helsinki on 24 March, 1852. Although the text is in Swedish (Swedish and Finnish are both official languages in Finland) it concerns an event from Finnish history when Finland was a province of Sweden in the 17th century.​
The plot concerns the visit of the young King Charles XI to the Åland Islands to go hunting. Leonora, the daughter of a local fisherman, learns of a plot against the king's life and saves him. In return, the king spares the life of her fiancé Jonathan, who has been condemned to death for killing one of the royal elks.
First performance of Fredrik Pacius' opera Kung Karls jakt, the first to be composed in Finland, in Helsinki with a Swedish language libretto by Zachris Topelius.

Fredrik Pacius - Kung Karls jakt - Introduction to act III - Hej, så lustigt bara!
Fischer woman: Elisabeth Ahlbäck 
Fischer: Aljot Böstman 
Bartender: Hans Lydman 
Marktschreier I: Matti Pipponen 
Marktschreier II: Heikki Heinonen
Leonora: Pirkko Törnqvist 
The Jubilate Chorus
Finnish National Opera Orchestra
Conductor: Ulf Söderblom

30 September 
Sir Charles Villiers Stanford
, composer, born.

21 November  
Francisco Tárrega
, guitarist and composer, born.

Charles Villiers Stanford

Charles Villiers Stanford

Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, (born Sept. 30, 1852, Dublin—died March 29, 1924, London), Anglo-Irish composer, conductor, and teacher who greatly influenced the next generation of British composers; Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Arthur Bliss, and Gustav Holst were among his pupils.

Stanford studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and Queen’s College, Cambridge, and between 1874 and 1877 with Karl Reinecke in Leipzig and Friedrich Kiel in Berlin. He became professor of composition at the Royal College of Music in London in 1883 and professor of music at Cambridge in 1887. He also conducted the London Bach Choir (1885–1902) and the Leeds Triennial Festival orchestra (1901–10). He was knighted in 1901. Stanford was a prolific composer and was especially known for his orchestral works, which include seven symphonies and five Irish Rhapsodies. His other works include numerous choral pieces, 10 operas, and many songs. His music reflects the late 19th-century Romantic style, into which he introduced elements of Irish folk song.


Stanford composed about 200 works, including seven symphonies, about 40 choral works, nine operas, 11 concertos and 28 chamber works, as well as songs, piano pieces, incidental music, and organ works. He suppressed most of his earliest compositions; the earliest of works that he chose to include in his catalogue date from 1875.

Throughout his career as a composer, Stanford's technical mastery was rarely in doubt. The composer Edgar Bainton said of him, "Whatever opinions may be held upon Stanford's music, and they are many and various, it is, I think, always recognised that he was a master of means. Everything he turned his hand to always 'comes off.'" On the day of Stanford's death, one former pupil, Gustav Holst, said to another, Herbert Howells, "The one man who could get any one of us out of a technical mess is now gone from us."

After Stanford's death most of his music was quickly forgotten, with the exception of his works for church performance. His Stabat Mater and Requiem held their place in the choral repertoire, the latter championed by Sir Thomas Beecham. Stanford's two sets of sea songs and the song "The Blue Bird" were still performed from time to time, but even his most popular opera, Shamus O'Brien came to seem old fashioned with its "stage-Irish" vocabulary. However, in his 2002 study of Stanford, Dibble writes that the music, increasingly available on disc if not in live performance, still has the power to surprise. In Dibble's view, the frequent charge that Stanford is "Brahms and water" was disproved once the symphonies, concertos, much of the chamber music and many of the songs became available for reappraisal when recorded for compact disc. In 2002, Rodmell's study of Stanford included a discography running to 16 pages.

The criticism most often made of Stanford's music by writers from Shaw onwards is that his music lacks passion.Shaw praised "Stanford the Celt" and abominated "Stanford the Professor", who reined in the emotions of the Celt. In Stanford's church music, the critic Nicholas Temperley finds "a thoroughly satisfying artistic experience, but one that is perhaps lacking in deeply felt religious impulse." In his operas and elsewhere, Grove, Parry and later commentators found music that ought to convey love and romance failing to do so. Like Parry, Stanford strove for seriousness, and his competitive streak led him to emulate Sullivan not in comic opera, for which Stanford had a real gift, but in oratorio in what Rodmell calls grand statements that "only occasionally matched worthiness with power or profundity."


Charles Villiers Stanford - Symphony No.1 in B-flat major (1876)

Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra

Conductor: David Lloyd-Jones

Charles Villiers Stanford - Symphony No. 2 "Elegiac" (1882)

Charles Villiers Stanford - Symphony No. 3 "Irish" (1887)

Charles Villiers Stanford - Piano Concerto No.2 in C-minor, Op.126 (1911)
ianist: Margaret Fingerhut - Orchestra: Ulster Orchestra - Conductor: Vernon Handley

Charles Villiers Stanford - Irish Rhapsody No. 1 in D minor, op. 78 (To Hans Richter)

Allegro molto – Adagio – Allegro

Ulster Orchestra
Vernon Handley, conductor

Charles Villiers Stanford - Stabat Mater (1906)
I. Prelude - 00:00
II. Quartet and Chorus: Stabat Mater dolorosa - 8:49
III. Intermezzo - 20:06
IV. Quartet and Chorus: Eja Mater, fons amoris - 23:24
V. Quarter and Chorus: Virgo virginum praeclara - 30:23

Charles Villiers Stanford - Requiem (1897)
I. Introit - Adagio - 00:00
II. Kyrie - Allegro Tranquillo Ed Espressivo - 8:09
III. Gradual - Larghetto - 12:52
IV. Sequence - Dies Irae - Allegro Moderato Ma Energico - 17:35
V. Offetorium - Allegro - 47:59
VI. Sanctus - Allegro Non Troppo - 59:37
VII. Agnus Dei Et Lux Aeterna - 1:09:46

Francisco Tárrega

Francisco Tárrega

Francisco de Asís Tárrega y Eixea (21 November 1852 – 15 December 1909) was a Spanish composer and classical guitarist of the Romantic period. He is known for such pieces as Recuerdos de la Alhambra. He is often called "the father of classical guitar" and is considered one of the greatest guitarists of all time.


Tárrega was born on 21 November 1852, in Villarreal, Province of Castellón, Spain.

In 1862, concert guitarist Julián Arcas, on tour in Castellón, heard the young Tárrega play and advised Tárrega's father to allow Francisco to come to Barcelona to study with him.  Although Tárrega was only ten years old, he ran away and tried to start a musical career on his own by playing in coffee houses and restaurants in Barcelona. He was soon found and brought back to his father, who had to make great sacrifices to advance his son's musical education.

Three years later, in 1865, he ran away again, this time to Valencia where he joined a gang of gypsies. His father looked for him and brought him back home once more, but he ran away a third time, again to Valencia.

Tárrega entered the Madrid conservatory in 1874, under the sponsorship of a wealthy merchant named Antonio Canesa. He had brought along with him a recently purchased guitar, made in Seville by Antonio de Torres.

By the end of the 1870s, Tárrega was teaching the guitar and giving regular concerts. Tárrega received much acclaim for his playing and began traveling to other areas of Spain to perform. By this time he was composing his first works for guitar, which he played in addition to works of other composers.

During the winter of 1880, Tárrega replaced his friend Luis de Soria, in a concert in Novelda, Alicante, where, after the concert, an important man in town asked the artist to listen to his daughter, María José Rizo, who was learning to play guitar. Soon they were engaged.

In 1881, Tárrega played in the Opera Theatre in Lyon and then the Paris Odeon, in the bicentenary of the death of Pedro Calderón de la Barca. He also played in London, but he liked neither the language nor the weather. After playing in London he came back to Novelda for his wedding. At Christmas 1882, Tárrega married María José Rizo.

From the later 1880s up to 1903, Tárrega continued composing, but limited his concerts to Spain. 
In January 1906, he was afflicted with paralysis on his right side, and though he would eventually return to the concert stage, he never completely recovered. He finished his last work, Oremus, on 2 December 1909. He died in Barcelona thirteen days later, on 15 December, at the age of 57.


16 Preludes for Guitar by Francisco Tárrega
 Guitar: David Russell

Francisco Tárrega - Capricho árabe
Guitar: David Russell

Francisco Tárrega - Gran Jota
Pepe Romero (guitar)

Francisco Tárrega - Variaciones sobre "El Carnaval de Venecia" de Paganini
Guitar: David Russell

Francisco Tárrega: Tango Maria
- Pedro Abreu, guitar and bass
- Goran Zegarac, guitar
- Pavle Golubic, cajón



Franz Liszt:
Piano Sonata in B minor;
Hungarian Rhapsodies 1–15

Liszt - Piano Sonata in B minor, S. 178
André Laplante

Liszt - Hungarian Rhapsodies 
Georges Cziffra (1-16, 19), Robert Szidon (17-18)
No.1 - 0:00
No.2 - 10:10
No.3 - 19:14
No.4 - 23:24
No.5 - 28:05
No.6 - 35:31
No.7 - 41:51
No.8 - 46:18
No.9 - 52:00
No.10 - 1:01:52
No.11 - 1:06:38
No.12 - 1:11:37
No.13 - 1:20:21
No.14 - 1:28:40
No.15 - 1:39:26
No.16 - 1:44:55
No.17 - 1:50:22
No.18 - 1:53:43
No.19 - 1:56:48

Johannes BrahmsPiano Sonata No. 1;
Piano Sonata No. 3

Johannes Brahms - Piano sonata n°1 op.1

I. Allegro 0:00
II. Andante 10:59
III. Scherzo. Allegro molto e con fuoco 16:08
IV. Finale. Allegro con fuoco 21:29

Elisso Virsaladze
London, 1993

Brahms  - Piano Sonata No. 3 in F minor, Op. 5

00:00 - I. Allegro maestoso 
09:46 - II. Andante. Andante espressivo - Andante molto 
19:07 - III. Scherzo. Allegro energico avec trio 
23:21 - IV. Intermezzo (Rückblick / Regard en arrière) Andante molto 
26:47 - V. Finale. Allegro moderato ma rubato 
Peter Rösel 
- 1974 

Louis Moreau GottschalkThe Banjo, Op. 15

Louis Moreau Gottschalk - Le Banjo, Op. 15 - Fantaisie Grotesque
Jimin Oh-Havenith, piano

Henryk Wieniawski – Violin Concerto No. 1

Henryk Wieniawski: Violin Concerto No. 1 in F sharp minor, op. 14

1. Allegro Moderato
2. Preghiera. Larghetto
3. Rondo. Allegro giocoso

Midori, violin
Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra
Conductor: Leonard Slatkin
, 1988

Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms and Albert Dietrich – F-A-E Sonata

Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Albert Dietrich – F-A-E Sonata
FAE Sonata 1st part (Dietrich)
FAE Sonata 2nd part (Schumann)
FAE Sonata 3nd m (Brahms)
FAE Sonata 4th m (Schumann).

The F-A-E Sonata, a four-movement work for violin and piano, is a collaborative musical work by three composers: Robert Schumann, the young Johannes Brahms, and Schumann's pupil Albert Dietrich (1829 - 1908). It was composed in Düsseldorf in October 1853.

The sonata was Schumann's idea as a gift and tribute to violinist Joseph Joachim, whom the three composers had recently befriended. Joachim had adopted the Romantic German phrase "Frei aber einsam" ("free but lonely") as his personal motto. The composition's movements are all based on the musical notes F-A-E, the motto's initials, as a musical cryptogram.

Schumann assigned each movement to one of the composers. Dietrich wrote the substantial first movement in sonata form. Schumann followed with a short Intermezzo as the second movement. The Scherzo was by Brahms, who had already proven himself a master of this form in his E flat minor Scherzo for piano and the scherzi in his first two piano sonatas. Schumann provided the finale.

Franz Berwald-- Piano Quintet No. 1 In C Minor

Allegro Molto - 
Scherzo Poco Allegretto - 
Adagio Quasi Andante - 
Allegro Assai E Con Spiritoso.

Uppsala Chamber Soloists: 
Nils-Erik Sparf, violin, Klara Hellgren, violin, Susanne Magnusson, viola, Diana Crafoord, viola, Lars Frykholm, cello, and Staffan Sjöholm, double bass. Bengt-Åke Lundin - Piano

Franz Berwald - Piano Quintet No. 1 in C minor

Charles GounodMéditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de S. Bach, later known as Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod)

Meditation on the First Prelude of J.S. Bach - Charles Gounod 
Cello and Piano duet: Allison Chen, Seungjun Kim

Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod) for harp and cello 
Daniel Gaisford and Julie Gaisford Keyes

Bach-Gounod-Ave Maria over Prelude No.1 in C
Julia Rovinsky-Harp
Guy Eshed- Flute

Bach-Gounod' 'Ave Maria'
Rubin Museum of Art in New York City
Anne Akiko Meyers, violín
Reiko Uchida, piano

Ave Maria. Méditation sur le Premier Prélude de Piano de J. S. Bach (C.Gounod)
Piano Cristina T. - Guitarra: Luis M.C.

Ave Maria (Bach/Gounod)
Concerto de Natal - Igreja S. Vicente de Fora
Soprano - Elsa Saque
- Orquestra Nova Filarmonia
Coro Teatro Nacional de São Carlos (Maestro João Paulo Santos) - Maestro Álvaro Cassuto

Camille Saint-Saëns: 
Piano Quartet in E major;
Symphony No. 1 in E♭ major

Camille Saint Saens - Piano Quartet in B flat major, Op.41

Cristina Ortiz: Piano
Ralph Evans, Violin I
Efim Boico, Violin II
Nicolo Eugelmi, Viola
Robert Cohen, Cello

Camille Saint-Saëns - Symphony No.1 in E-flat major, Op.2

Wiener Symphoniker - Conductor: Georges Prêtre

William Henry FrySanta Claus, Christmas Symphony

Fry – Santa Claus, Christmas Symphony

30 December 
André Messager
, composer, born.

André Messager

André Messager, in full André-Charles-Prosper Messager, (born December 30, 1853, Montluçon, France—died February 24, 1929, Paris), French conductor and composer whose operettas achieved popularity in France and England.


Messager established his reputation with his operetta La Béarnaise (performed Paris, 1885; London, 1886). Between 1890 and 1926 he produced 14 operettas, including Madame Chrysanthème (1893; on a plot similar to Puccini’s Madama Butterfly), Mirette (1894), and Monsieur Beaucaire (1919). Of his three ballets Les Deux Pigeons (1886) was especially well known. He wrote in a light, elegant style that was characteristically Parisian. He became director of the Opéra-Comique in Paris in 1898, then artistic director of the Royal Opera, Covent Garden (1901–06), and later associate director of the Paris Opéra. He conducted the first performance (1902) of Claude Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande. His wife was the Irish composer Hope Temple (Dotie Davies; 1859–1938).


Early stage works
Although Messager called some of his early stage works opéras comiques they have, Gervase Hughes suggests, more in common with opérette than their composer acknowledged. Nevertheless, Messager introduced adventurous modern harmonic details in his early pieces, and strove to raise the artistic standards of opérette to that of opéra comique while retaining the essential panache of the genre. Hughes finds the first stage works uneven in quality but La Fauvette du temple (1884) to contain two fine expressive duets as well as waltzes and polkas with "an Offenbach lilt". Hughes judges the next two scores, La Béarnaise and La Fauvette (both 1885), less satisfying but nonetheless at least as good as anything by Messager's older contemporaries Planquette, Serpette and Lecocq.

Wagstaff writes that the composer's most enduring work is the ballet score Les Deux Pigeons (1886) The piece is based on the fable The Two Pigeons by Jean de La Fontaine. The music is best known in the five-movement suite arranged from the full score, which includes the "Entrée de tziganes". Messager revived the ballet in 1906 in London and in 1912 in Paris in a shortened, two-act version. In 1961 John Lanchbery revised this for Frederick Ashton's new version of the ballet, with a closing reconciliation scene from earlier music and a passage transcribed from Véronique. This was first given at Covent Garden, is revived regularly by the Royal Ballet and has been staged by such other companies as CAPAB and Australian Ballet.

Isoline (1888), a musical fairy story ("conte des fées"), is neither an opérette nor an opéra comique. Writing in 1908, Fauré called it "one of the most poetic, most expressive works that have been written in France in the last twenty years",[133] but it made little impact. The score remained in obscurity until 1930 when Reynaldo Hahn staged the ballet section of the work at Cannes. The whole piece was revived at the Opéra-Comique in 1958; it failed again, but the ballet, unencumbered by the portentousness of the libretto, which weighs down the rest of the piece, has remained in the repertory.
1890s stage works​
The decade began well for Messager with the artistic and commercial success of La Basoche (1890). Février in his André Messager: Mon Maître, Mon Ami calls it "the last of the great nineteenth-century French comic operas" ("le dernier des grands opéras-comique français du XIX siècle")[136] and considers it of the greatest importance not only in Messager's career but in the history of French musical theatre. Hughes says it has a good claim to be the composer's masterpiece. The musicologist James Harding rates it "the best Messager had written to date ... one of his finest works".[118] When the work was given in London, a year after its Parisian premiere, the reviewer in The Times called it, "A work of great beauty and charm", although "the influence of Die Meistersinger is felt to an extent that is almost absurd both in the bright overture and again in the procession of the guild, but elsewhere the music is as original as it is charming".

With Madame Chrysanthème (1893), a four-act "lyric comedy" with no spoken dialogue, Messager reached a turning point in his development. The crux of the plot was the same as that later used by Puccini for Madama Butterfly (1904): a young Japanese geisha wooed and then abandoned by a foreign sailor. Messager's treatment of the story was praised for its sensitivity – reviewers in the Parisian press applauded him for raising opérette to the level of "comédie lyrique – but he was a self-critical artist, and he felt he had strayed too far in the direction of opera and away from his chosen genre. Harding suggests that the unusual seriousness of the score may be connected with the recent illness and death of Edith Messager. Both Hughes and Harding comment that Messager's score is subtler than Puccini's, but add that the almost total eclipse of Madame Chrysanthème by Madama Butterfly may be partly due to the relative effectiveness of their libretti. After this, Messager consciously simplified his style, greatly reducing the harmonic subtleties that had been characteristic of his earlier works.

The works from the middle of the decade were unsuccessful financially and artistically. Le Chevalier d'Harmental (1896), classed by Hughes as Messager's first true opéra comique ("in a somewhat pretentious style") was a failure, and an unpretentious opérette in the same year, La Fiancée en loterie, fared no better. After these disappointments Messager finished the 1890s with two considerable successes. Traubner describes Les P'tites Michu (1897) as "a sensational hit", and Harding calls it the best of Messager's opérettes so far (classing Le Basoche as opéra comique, as did its composer). The plot was not strikingly original: critics commented that its story of babies switched at birth was already very familiar from Gilbert and Sullivan operas.  Traubner describes the piece as "one of those unusual works that begin well enough and gets better and better". Setting a scene in the market of Les Halles was not innovative, but Messager's chorus for the marchands and marchandes was out of the ordinary, and Traubner also singles out the duet for the Michus in Act 1: "clever, lilting ... pulsating with an elegance and grace that other operetta composers have failed to obtain". He also judges the finales as outstanding, including a waltz number that in other hands would be predictable but is turned by Messager into something much more symphonic.

The final work from the decade was Véronique. Messager described it as an opéra comique, but commentators have classed it as a mixture of opérette and opéra comique.The score contains two of the composer's best known numbers, the "Swing duet" ("Poussez, poussez l'escarpolette") and the "Donkey duet" ("De ci, de la"). When the work was revived at the Proms in London in the 1960s, the music critic of The Times commented, "Charming as it can prove in the theatre, the music alone is a little thin, with none of the piquancy that – thanks perhaps to Gilbert – redeems Messager's famous English contemporary Sullivan ... but Véronique has plenty of pretty things". It became and has remained the composer's most performed musical theatre piece.

20th century
Marion Green and Maggie Teyte in Monsieur Beaucaire, 1919
Messager's work running opera houses in Paris and London limited his composing between Véronique and the period after the First World War. Fortunio (1907) was a rare example in his oeuvre of a sung-through opera. Eight decades later the critic Edward Greenfield described it as "a long-buried jewel of a piece ... an improbable cross between musical comedy and Tristan und Isolde". From 1919 onwards Messager composed no more opéras comiques. Among his post-war stage works, Monsieur Beaucaire, a "romantic operetta" (1919), was his second work to an English libretto. French critics were inclined to look down on "Messager's English operetta" as over-sweet and sentimental to suit Anglo-Saxon tastes. Harding comments that the composer was successful in his attempt to produce an English flavour: one number is "pure Edward German" and there is much pastiche throughout the score. Despite the critics the piece ran well not only in Britain and the US, but also in France, with more than 300 performances in Paris and a long life in French provincial theatres.

Of Messager's 1920s comédies musicales the best known is L'Amour masqué (1923). The Théâtre Édouard VII where it was premiered had a small orchestra pit, and Messager developed a new style of orchestration to deliver his desired musical effects with a small number of players. Harding comments that the piece was up-to-date enough to include a tango, "a beautifully written example with luscious harmonies that by contrast show up the threadbare nature of most other efforts of the time".

André Messager

André Messager: Les Deux Pigeons Ballet Suite (1886)
Orchestre de Paris conducted by Jean-Pierre Jacquillat

André Messager - Coups De Roulis
[Willemetz, after M. Larrouy] (1928)

Béatrice: Lina DACHARY
Sola Myrrhis: Claudine COLLART
Puy-Pradal: Gaston REY
Kermao: Aimé DONIAT
Gerville: Dominique TIRMONT
Pinson: Jacques PRUVOST
Saint-Mesmin: Pierre SAUGEY
Bellory: Michel FAUCHEY
Muriac: René LENOTY
Haubourdin: Charles DAGUERESSAR
Blangy: Marcel GENIO
Supervielle: Jean HOFFMANN

Chœur et orchestre de la RTF, Marcel CARIVEN, 1963

André Messager - La Petite Fonctionnaire
[A.Capus And X.Roux] (1921)

Comédie musicale in drei Akte
Text von Albert Capus und Xavier Roux
Uraufführung : Paris, Mogador, 14. Mai 1921 Gesamtaufnahme mit Dialog

Suzanne - Claudine Collard
Riri - Monique Stiot
Mme Lebardin - Denise Benoit
Mme Pagenelle - Germaine Duclos
1er invitée - Linda Felder
2me invitée - Renée Castille
le vicomte - Aimé Doniat
M. Lebardin - Gaston Rey
M. Pagenelle - René Lénoty
Auguste - Roger Verdel
un monsieur - Pierre Roy

Chœurs de l'ORTF, Orchestre Radio-Lyrique Jean-Paul Kreder, 1967

André Messager  - Madame Chrysanthème
Opera in quattro atti
Libretto di Georges Hartmann e Akexandre Andre

Janine Micheau (Madame Chrysanthème/soprano)
Denise Monteil (Rose/soprano)
Solange Michel (Madame Prune/contralto)
Agnes Disney (Madame Fraise/mezzosoprano)
Raphael Romagnoni (Pierre/tenore)
Lucien Lovano (Yves/baritono)
René Lenoty (Monsieur Kangourou/tenore)
Jean Mollien (Le Gabier)

Choeur et Orchestre Lyrique dell'ORTF Paris
Direttore: Jules Gressier, 1956

André Messager - Béatrice
[Caillavet And Flers, After C.Nodier] (1914)
Legende lyrique en 4 actes (1914)

Beatrice - Jacqueline Brumaire
La Vierge - Nadine Sautereau
Musidora - Andree Gabriel
La Bohemienne - Solange Michel
La Superieure - Christiane Cloez
Frosine - Caludine Collart
Les Saeurs - Mathilde Sibere, Huguette Hennetier, Jacqueline Cauchard Lorenzo - Raphael Romagnonli
Tiberio - Robert Massard
L'Eveque - Lucien Lovano
Fabrice - Joseph Peyron
Fabio - Jean Mollien
Beppo - Charles Clavensy

Choeurs & Orchestre-Lyrique de la RTF Chef des choeurs - Rene Alix Direction - Gustave Cloez - 1957

André Messager - ISOLINE  - 1888
Isoline: Janine Micheau,
Isolin: Jeanne Rolland,
Titania: Maria Branèze,
La Reine Amalasonthe: Marguerite Pifteau,
Violante: Genevève Parat,
Nicette: Nadine Sautereau,
Désolée: Jacqueline Cauchard,
Oberon: Willy Clément
Rosélio/Daphnis: Joseph Peyron
Choeurs de la RTF, Orchestre Radio Lyrique
Direction Louis Beydts, 1947

André Messager - L’Amour Masqué  (1923)
Lui    spoken role 
Le baron    baritone   
L'interprète    baritone  
Un monsieur    baritone   
Le Maharadjah de Hounk    baritone  
Elle    soprano   
Première servante    soprano 
Deuxième servante    soprano   
Une dame    soprano   
Une dame    soprano  
Une dame    soprano

André Messager - La Béarnaise
[E.Leterrier And A.Vanloo] (1885)

Jacquette-Fanely Revoil -m.s.
Bianca-Lina Dachary -sop.
Bettina-Suzanne- Legay -sop.
Pomponio-Michel Hamel -ten.
Cadet-Raymond Liot -ten.
Capt. Perpignac-Willy Clement -bar.
Girafou-Jean- Christophe Benoit -bar.
Duc de Parma-Andre Balbon-basse - bouffe

cond. Marcel Cariven, 1956



Johannes Brahms:
Piano Trio No. 1, Op. 8 (revised in 1889);
Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann in F-sharp minor, Op. 9, for piano. The theme is from Op. 99, Bunte Blätter;
Ballades, Op. 10;
Fourteen Variations on a Hungarian Melody, in D major, Op. 21 No. 2

Brahms - Piano Trio in B Major, Op 8 
Isaac Stern: violin
Pablo Casals: cello
Myra Hess: piano
Prades-1952  1. Allegro con brio  2.Scherzo. Allegro molto  3.Adagio  4.Allegro

Brahms - Variations on a Theme by Schumann, Op 9
Alexander Kobrin

Brahms - 4 Ballades op. 10
00:00 Ballade n. 1 in D minor
04:05 Ballade n. 2 in D
10:07 Ballade n. 3 in B minor
13:51 Ballade n. 4 in B

Alfred Brendel, piano

Johannes Brahms -  Variations on a Hungarian Song Op. 21 No. 2.
Idil Biret, Piano

Brahms: Complete Variations
00:00:00 Variations on a theme of Paganini in A Minor Studies, Op. 35, Book I
00:14:03 Variations on a theme of Paganini in A Minor Studies, Op. 35, Book II
00:26:20 Variations and Fugue on a theme of Handel in B-Flat Major, Op. 24 (1861)
00:53:32 Variations on an original theme in D Major, Op. 21 No. 1, (1856-57)
01:11:40 Variations on a Hungarian Song in D Major, Op. 21 No. 2 (c 1853-54)
01:18:54 Variations on a theme of Robert Schumann in F-Sharp Minor, Op. 9 (1854)
Wolfram Schmitt-Leonardy (piano)

24 June 
Franz SchubertAlfonso und Estrella

Alfonso und Estrella (Alfonso and Estrella),
D 732, is an opera with music by Franz Schubert, set to a German libretto by Franz von Schober, written in 1822. 

Franz Schubert - ALFONSO UND ESTRELLA,  D 732

1. Act  0:00
2. Act  1:07:27
3. Act  2:00:49
Estrella, Mauregato's daughter:  Edith Mathis Soprano 
Alfonso King Froila's son:          Peter Schreier Tenor
Mauregato, the usurper:            Hermann Prey Baritone
King Froila:                              Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau Baritone
Adolfo, Mauregato's general       heo Adam Bass

Rundfunk Chor and Staatskapelle Berlin
Otmar Suitner Conductor

Alfonso is the son of the deposed King Froila, of León. Froila is concerned that Alfonso is anxious to lead a revolt against Mauregato, the usurper of Froila's throne. At the court of Leon, Adolfo, an ambitious general, is in love with Estrella, the daughter of Mauregato. However, Mauregato has said that only the man who has the "Chain of Eurich" may marry Estrella. Angry at being denied Estrella in marriage, Adolfo plans a coup against Mauregato.

During a hunting expedition, Estrella is separated from her party. She and Alfonso meet and fall in love, unaware of the identity of the other. Alfonso gives Estrella a necklace that he has always carried, and directs her on a safe path home. Back at court, she tells her story, and Mauregato recognizes the necklace as the "Chain of Eurich". Before he can tell her of its meaning, the rebellion led by Adolfo has begun, and Adolfo captures Estrella. Alfonso learns that Estrella is Mauregato's daughter, and then sides with Mauregato against the rebels. Mauregato's forces defeat Adolfo, and Alfonso rescues Estrella. However, Mauregato has a crisis of conscience, and he restores Froila to his throne. In turn, Froila gives up his power to Alfonso and Estrella.

Historically, the Kingdom of León did have a king called Froila, whose son was Alfonso, and the kingdom was in their time troubled by instability and power struggles, including a possible usurpation by a Mauregatus.

3 July  
Leoš Janáček
, composer, born.


1 September  
Engelbert Humperdinck
, composer, born.

Franz Liszt Les préludes

Franz Liszt: Les Préludes
Wiener Philharmoniker, Riccardo Muti, conductor, 2012

Hector Berlioz L'enfance du Christ

Berlioz: L'Enfance du Christ
The Radio Philharmonic Orchestra 
The Netherlands Radio Choir 
James Gaffigan [conductor]
Blandine Staskiewitcz [mezzo-soprano]
Thomas Oliemans [baritone] 
Jean Teitgen [bass]
Stanislas de Barbeyrac [tenor]
Arnaud Richard [bass]

Henryk Wieniawski - Le carnaval russe Op.11
Violinist Marat Bisengaliev

Henri WieniawskiLe carnaval russe 

18 October 
Charles Gounod - La nonne sanglante

La nonne sanglante (The Bloody Nun)
, is a five-act opera by Charles Gounod to a libretto by Eugène Scribe and Germain Delavigne. Written between 1852 and 1854, it was first produced on 18 October 1854 at the Salle Le Peletier by the Paris Opéra.

"La Nonne sanglante" de Gounod à l'Opéra Comique - Replay

Le comte Ludorf    bass   
Le baron Moldaw    bass   
Pierre l'hermite    bass  
Rodolphe, son of Ludorf    tenor   
Agnès, daughter of Moldaw    soprano  
La nonne sanglante    mezzo-soprano 
Arthur, Rodolphe's servant    soprano 
Vassals, soldiers, wedding-guests, peasants, knights, ghosts
Place: Bohemia          Time: 11th century
Agnès is in love with Rodolphe, although the two families are perpetually at war with each other. Moldaw's castle is said to be haunted by the bloody figure of a nun.

Act 1
Pierre, the hermit, breaks up a row between the family vassals and abjures them to join his crusade. He proposes that Agnès should marry Rodoplhe's brother Théobald to cement relations between the families. The lovers agree that to escape, Agnès should disguise herself as the ghost of the nonne sanglante and elope with him at midnight.

Act 2
Arthur sings of the legend of la nonne saglante. At Rodolphe's rendez-vous, he walks off with the ghost of the nun, believing it to be Agnès. The ghosts of Rodolphe's ancestors materialise in the magically-restored family castle to witness the marriage of Rodolphe and the nun.

Act 3
Théobald has been killed in battle, so Rodolphe is in theory free to marry Agnès. However Rodolphe reveals to Arthur that he is nightly haunted by the nun who reminds him of his vows. She eventually reveals that Rodolphe can only be released by killing the (unidentified) man who murdered her.

Act 4
At the marriage feast of Rodophe and Agnès, the nun's ghost appears at midnight and indicates to Rodolphe that his father, Ludorf, was her murderer. Rodolphe abandons the ceremonies in horror, reigniting the ancient mutual hatred of the families.

Act 5
Ludorf is consumed by guilt for his crime, and will accept punishment if he can meet with Rodolphe for one last time. He overhears Moldaw's retainers planning to kidnap Rodolphe. Rodolphe then appears with Agnès and confesses to her the story of the ghost. To save his son, Ludorf presents himself to Moldaw's men as his son, and is murdered by them, dying in his son's arms at the tomb of the murdered nun. This act of expiation is clearly acceptable to the ghost who ascends to heaven praying for Ludorf.

6 November  
John Philip Sousa
, composer, born.


Engelbert Humperdinck

Engelbert Humperdinck, (born Sept. 1, 1854, Sieberg, Hanover—died Sept. 27, 1921, Neustrelitz, Ger.), German composer known for his opera Hänsel und Gretel.


Humperdinck studied at Cologne and at Munich. In 1879 a Mendelssohn scholarship enabled him to go to Italy, where he met Wagner, who invited him to assist in the production of Parsifal at Bayreuth. He taught at the Barcelona Conservatory (1885–87) and at Frankfurt (1890–96), where he was also music critic of the Frankfurter Zeitung. Early works were the choral ballads Die Wallfahrt nach Kevelaar (1878), Das Glück von Edenhall (1884), and the Humoreske (1880) for orchestra. Hänsel und Gretel, conducted by Richard Strauss, was produced at Weimar on Dec. 23, 1893. The libretto, by the composer’s sister Adelheid Wette, was based on the folktale made familiar by the brothers Grimm. In this work Humperdinck showed an understanding of a child’s mind and a sense of poetry, notably in the atmosphere of the woodland scene at twilight and in the realistic effects in the episode of the broken milk jug; the Wagnerian harmonies, the simple tunes, and the resourceful orchestration maintain the musical interest on a high level.

Between 1895 and 1919 Humperdinck produced six more operas, including Dornröschen (Frankfurt, 1902) and Königskinder (New York City, 1910), but neither they nor the spectacle The Miracle (London, 1911) enhanced his prestige. He also wrote incidental music for plays by Aristophanes, Shakespeare, and Maeterlinck; a Moorish Rhapsody for orchestra (1898); a string quartet; works for piano; and songs.


Hansel and Gretel (Hänsel und Gretel) is an opera by nineteenth-century composer Engelbert Humperdinck, who described it as a Märchenoper (fairy-tale opera). The libretto was written by Humperdinck's sister, Adelheid Wette, based on the Grimm brothers' fairy tale "Hansel and Gretel".

Engelbert Humperdinck - Königskinder - Overture
Conductor: Alfred Walter
Orchestra: Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra

Engelbert Humperdinck - Szenen aus Königskinder
Youth Chorus, Children's Chorus, Supernumerary Children, Choir
Königssohn: Jonas Kaufmann
Spielmann: Oliver Widmer
Holzhacker: Reinhard Mayr
Besenbinder: Boguslaw Bidzinski

John Philip Sousa

John Philip Sousa

John Philip Sousa, byname The March King, (born November 6, 1854, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died March 6, 1932, Reading, Pennsylvania), American bandmaster and composer of military marches.


The son of an immigrant Portuguese father and a German mother, Sousa grew up in Washington, D.C., where from the age of six he learned to play the violin and later various band instruments and studied harmony and musical theory first with John Esputa and then with George Felix Benkert. In 1867 he began to follow the career of his father as a trombonist, but later he took engagements as an orchestral violinist and served as a conductor. He also began composing.

In 1868 he enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps as an apprentice in the Marine Band. He began building his formidable reputation as a bandmaster of great precision through his leadership (1880–92) of this group, which he raised to the highest standard of performance. In 1892 he formed his own band, a carefully selected group capable of equal virtuosity in both military and symphonic music; with it he toured the United States and Europe (1900–05) and finally made a world tour (1910–11).

Sousa composed 136 military marches, remarkable for their rhythmic and instrumental effects. They include the famous “Semper Fidelis” (1888), which became the official march of the U.S. Marine Corps, “The Washington Post” (1889), “The Liberty Bell” (1893), and “The Stars and Stripes Forever” (1897).

Between 1879 and 1915 he wrote 11 operettas, of which El Capitan (1896), The Bride Elect (1897), and The Free Lance (1906) were particularly successful. He wrote at least 70 songs, 11 waltzes, 12 other dance pieces, 11 suites, 14 humoresques, and 27 fantasies. In the 1890s he also redeveloped a type of bass tuba called the helicon, made to his specifications and eventually called the sousaphone.

During World War I he enlisted in the U.S. Navy and took charge of the band-training centre at Great Lakes Naval Base, in Illinois. For the U.S. Department of the Navy he compiled National, Patriotic and Typical Airs of All Lands (1890). He wrote three novels, an instruction book for trumpet and drum, and an autobiography, Marching Along (1928).


Marches by John Philip Sousa
00:00 Semper Fidelis
02:58 Stars and Stripes Forever
06:35 The Washington Post
09:14 The Coquette
11:24 Jack Tar
13:50 Sound Off Alert March
16:07 The Rifle Regiment
19:21 The Thunderer
22:10 Hands Across the Sea

Marches by John Philip Sousa
1.  Semper Fidelis
 2.  National Fencibles March
 3.  The Thunderer
 4.  The Gladiator
 5.   El Capitan
 6.  Stars and Stripes Forever
 7.  Washington Post March
 8.  U.S. Field Artillery March
 9.  The Invincible Eagle March
10.  King Cotton
11.  Manhattan Beach March
12.  Hands Across The Sea
The Warner Brothers Military Band - Henry Mancini conducting

SOUSA Review (1873) - "The President's Own"
U.S. Marine Band



Bedřich SmetanaPiano Trio in G minor, Op. 15

Bedřich Smetana - Piano Trio g minor, op.15
1. Moderato assai - Più animato – 0:00
2. Allegro, ma non agitato – 11:25
3. Finale. Presto – 20:01

Terezie Fialová, piano
Roman Patočka, violin
Jiří Bárta, violoncello

Georges Bizet – Symphony in C

Georges Bizet - Symphony in C
1. Allegro vivo
2. Andante. Adagio (10:52)
3. Allegro vivace (20:26)
4. Finale. Allegro vivace (25:55)
Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Bernhard Haitink

Franz Berwald – Piano Concerto in D

Franz Berwald - Concerto per pianoforte e orchestra in re maggiore
Niklas Sivelov

Charles Gounod – Symphony No. 1 in D

Charles Gounod - Symphony No.1 in D-major 

Mov.I: Allegro molto 00:00
Mov.II: Allegretto moderato 05:56
Mov.III: Scherzo: Non troppo presto 12:00
Mov.IV: Finale: Adagio - Allegro vivace 19:44

Sinfonia Finlandia Jyväskylä - Patrick Gallois

Camille Saint-Saëns:
Six Bagatelles for piano, Op. 3;
Quintet for Piano and Strings , Op. 14

Camille SAINT-SAËNS: 6 Bagatelles, Op.3
0:10  1. Poco sostenuto (G minor)
2:33  2. Allegro animato quasi presto (E-flat major)
5:38  3. Poco adagio (B-flat major)
9:16  4. Moderato assai (F major)
11:45  5. Allegro molto (D minor)
16:00  6. Poco sostenuto (G minor/major)
Bernard Ringeissen, piano, 1975

Camille Saint Saens - Quintet en La mineur, Op 14

Fine Arts Quartet
Cristina Ortiz, piano
00:00   I. Allegro moderato e maestoso
10:23   II. Andante sostenuto
16:29   III. Presto
21:44   IV. Allegro assai, ma tranquillo

Franz LisztPrelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H

Franz Liszt - Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H 
Felix Hell 

20 January  
Ernest Chausson
, composer, born.

13 June 
Giuseppe Verdi - Les Vêpres Siciliennes

Les vêpres siciliennes (The Sicilian Vespers) is a grand opera in five acts by the Italian romantic composer Giuseppe Verdi set to a French libretto by Eugène Scribe and Charles Duveyrier from their work Le duc d'Albe, which was written in 1838. Les vêpres followed immediately after Verdi's three great mid-career masterpieces, Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata of 1850 to 1853 and was first performed at the Paris Opéra on 13 June 1855.

Today the opera is performed both in the original French and sometimes in its post-1861 Italian version as I vespri siciliani. The story is based on a historical event, the Sicilian Vespers of 1282, using material drawn from the medieval Sicilian tract Lu rebellamentu di Sichilia.

Giuseppe Verdi, I vespri siciliani

Guido di Monforte:Giorgio Zancanaro
Arrigo:Chris Merrit
Helena:Cheryl Studer
Procida:Ferruccio Furlanetto

Director:Riccardo Muti
Teatro alla Scala 1989

Guy de Montfort, Governor of Sicily under Charles d'Anjou, King of Naples    baritone 
Le Sire de Béthune, a French officer    bass  
Le Comte de Vaudemont, a French officer    bass   
Henri, a young Sicilian    tenor  
Jean Procida, a Sicilian doctor    bass   
La Duchesse Hélène, sister of Duke Frederick of Austria    soprano   
Ninette, her maid    contralto   
Daniéli, her servant    tenor   
Thibault, a French soldier    tenor 
Robert, a French soldier    baritone  
Mainfroid, a Sicilian, adherent of Procida    tenor    Joseph Koenig
Place: Palermo, Italy        Time: 1282
Prior to the events of the opera, Procida, a leading Sicilian patriot, was wounded by French troops during their invasion of Sicily, and was forced into exile. Montfort, leader of the French troops, raped a Sicilian woman who later gave birth to a son, Henri. Montfort became governor of Sicily, while the Sicilian woman brought up her son to hate him, without revealing to Henri that Montfort was his father.

Act 1
Palermo's main square

Thibault, Robert and other French soldiers have gathered in front of the Governor's palace. As they offer a toast to their homeland, they are observed by the local Sicilians, unhappy with the occupation.

Hélène, who is being held hostage by the French governor, Montfort, enters dressed in mourning for her brother, Duke Frédéric of Austria, who had been executed by the French exactly a year before and whose death remains unavenged. Somewhat drunk, Robert, a French soldier of low rank, demands that she sing and she agrees. Her song about the prayers of seamen (Viens à nous, Dieu tutélaire – "Pray, O mighty God, calm with thy smile both sky and sea") and God's reply of "let dangers be scorned" ends with a rallying-cry (Courage!… du courage!) to the Sicilians to rebel against the occupiers. When the governor enters, the crowd calms down. Henri, just released from prison, assures Hélène how deeply he despises the governor. Overhearing this, Montfort orders Hélène to leave and then, alone with Henri, offers him a powerful position with his men as long as he stays away from Hélène. He refuses, and immediately follows Hélène into the palace.

Act 2
Beside the sea

Procida lands on the shore from a small fishing boat. It is clear that he is returning from exile and he expresses his joy at returning to his native land and city (Et toi, Palerme – "O thou Palermo, adored land…"). He is surrounded by Mainfroid and other companions and he quickly orders his men to bring Hélène and Henri to him (Dans l'ombre et le silence – "In darkness and in silence"). The three make plans for an uprising during the impending festivities leading to the marriages of a group of young people. After Procida leaves, Hélène asks Henri what reward he seeks. Swearing that he will avenge her brother's death, he asks for nothing but her love.

Béthune arrives with an invitation from Montfort to attend a ball. Henri refuses and is arrested and dragged off. Led by Robert, a group of French soldiers arrive and Procida returns and sees that it is too late to save Henri, since the young people have come into the square and have begun to dance. As the dance becomes more lively, Robert signals to his men, who seize many of the young women, dragging them off in spite of the protests of the young Sicilian men. The dejected young men witness a passing boat filled with French nobles and Sicilian women, all bound for the ball. Procida and others determine to gain entrance to the ball and seek their revenge.

Act 3
Scene 1: Montfort's palace

Montfort reads a paper from the woman whom he abducted, which reveals that Henri is his son (Si, m'abboriva ed a ragion! – "Yes, she despised me, and rightly!"). Béthune tells him that Henri has been brought by force, but Montfort exalts in the fact that his son is close by (Au sein de la puissance – "Given over to riches, surrounded by honors, an immense, horrid void…"). The two men confront one another and Henri is somewhat puzzled by the way he is being treated. Finally, Montfort reveals the letter written by Henri's mother. Taken aback but still defiant, Henri insults his father who reacts in anger as the younger man rushes out: "Fatal word!, Mortal insult! The joy has vanished ...".

Scene 2: A ball at Montfort's palace

When Montfort enters, he gives the signal for the ballet to begin.[24] In the crowd, but disguised, are Hélène, Henri, and Procida. Henri is surprised when the two reveal themselves and they declare that their purpose is to save the young man. However, he is disturbed to hear that they intend to kill Montfort and when the father approaches the son, there is a hint of warning given. As approaching assassins close in, Henri leaps in front of his father just as Hélène approaches. The Sicilians are horrified to see that Henri is being spared as the ensemble contemplates the situation. Hélène, Procida, Daniéli and the Sicilians curse Henri as they are dragged away, while he wants to follow, but is restrained by Montfort.

Act 4
A prison

Henri arrives at the prison gate and, on Montfort's orders, waits to be admitted. He contemplates the situation that his friends are in (O jour de peine – Day of weeping, of fierce sorrow!"). Hélène is brought out and confronts him. Finally, he admits that Montfort is his father and she begins to be willing to sympathise (Henri! Ah, parli a un core… – "Henri! Ah, you speak to a heart already prepared to forgive") Not seeing Henri, Procida approaches Hélène and reveals a letter telling him of awaiting freedom. But Montfort arrives and orders a priest and the execution of the prisoners while Procida is amazed to discover the truth of Henri's situation. Henri begs for mercy for his friends and Montfort confronts him with one thing: Dimmi sol, di’ “Mio padre” – "Say to me only, say “My father” ...". Henri says nothing as the executioner appears and the couple are led away, followed by Henri. Montfort steps in to prevent him from joining them. As Hélène is led towards the executioner, Montfort steps in and announces a pardon for the Sicilians. Furthermore, he agrees to the marriage of Hélène and Henri and announces to the crowd: "I find a son again!". There is general rejoicing.
Act 5
The gardens of Montfort's palace

As knights and maidens gather, Hélène gives thanks to all (Merci, jeunes amies – "Thank you, beloved friends"). Henri arrives, exclaiming his joy (La brise souffle au loin – "The breeze hovers about…"). He leaves to find his father, but Procida arrives, announcing a plan to outwit his enemies with their massacre to take place at the foot of the altar after the vows have been said. She is torn, the more so following Henri's return, between her love and her duty (Sorte fatal! Oh, fier cimento! – "Fatal destiny! Oh, fierce conflict!"). Finally, she can go no further and she tells Henri that they cannot be married. Both men are furious with her for her seeming betrayal. Then Montfort arrives, takes the couple's hands, joins them together, and pronounces them married as the bells begin to ring. This is the signal for the Sicilians to rush in and hurl themselves upon Montfort and the French.

14 May
Fromental Halévy - Jaguarita l'Indienne

Jaguarita l'Indienne is a three-act opéra comique, to a libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Adolphe de Leuven, with music by Fromental Halévy.

The opera is somewhat satiric in its intentions, but the plot element of the love of an exotic queen for a European is also found in Meyerbeer's later opera L'Africaine.
The opera was premiered on 14 May 1855 at the Théâtre-Lyrique, Paris, with the soprano Marie Cabel in the title role, whose performance in the part was much admired by Berlioz in a contemporary review. The opera was also chosen as the opening performance of the rebuilt Théâtre La Monnaie in Brussels in 1856.

Jaguarita is set in Dutch Guyana in 1772. Jaguarita is the queen of a native tribe, but has been taken prisoner by the Dutch. With her henchman, Jumbo, she drugs her guard Maurice whom she kidnaps as part of her escape. Falling in love with Maurice, Jaguarita gets her tribesmen drunk and successfully subverts their attack on the Dutch settlement.



5 July 
Jacques Offenbach - Les deux aveugles

Les deux aveugles (The Two Blind Men or The Blind Beggars)
is an 1855 one-act French bouffonerie musicale (operetta) by Jacques Offenbach. The libretto was written by Jules Moinaux and was a condensation of his 3-act Les musiciens ambulants.

Jacques Offenbach - Les Deux Aveugles

Girafier  - Aimé Doniat
Patachon  - Joseph Peyron
orchestre lyrique de l’ORTF Marcel Cariven
, 1971

Time: 19th century          Place: Paris
Two "blind" beggars compete for the best position on a bridge, first in a musical battle with Patachon playing on a trombone and Giraffier a mandolin, then in a game of cards, in which they cheat and betray their pretense of blindness. 'Business' has not been brisk. When passers-by drop coins, the beggars are able to see well enough to retrieve them. To impress each other, they fabricate wild stories, accompanied by singing. The contest becomes comically grotesque.

29 December 
Jacques Offenbach - Ba-ta-clan

Ba-ta-clan, chinoiserie musicale in one act, first performance 29 December 1855, Bouffes-Parisiens, Salle Choiseul, Paris. Libretto: Ludovic Halévy

Jacques Offenbach - Ba-ta-clan

Fé-an-nich-ton: Huguette Boulangeot
Fé-ni-han: Rémy Corazza
Ké-ki-ka-ko: Raymond Amade
Ko-ko-ri-ko: René Terrasson
Sprecher: Jean Desailly 

Chorus: Chorale Philippe Caillard 

Orchestra: Orchestre Jean-François Paillard

Conductor: Marcel Couraud

The action takes place in Ché-i-no-or - in the gardens of the palace of the Emperor Fè-ni-han, with kiosks and pagodas. Ko-ko-ri-ko, chief of the guard is the head of a conspiracy to dethrone the Emperor; the opera opens with the conspirators setting the scene in Chinese. They leave, and the princess Fé-an-nich-ton reads a book - La Laitière de Montfermeil by Paul de Kock; she notices that Ké-ki-ka-ko is leafing through a copy of La Patrie. They realize that each of them is not Chinese, but French. Ké-ki-ka-ko is the Viscount Alfred Cérisy, once shipwrecked on the coast of China and captured, tortured and brought to the palace and condemned to only repeat the rebels' song Ba-ta-clan. Fé-an-nich-ton confesses in song that she is Mademoiselle Virginie Durand, a light soprano who was on a Far East tour to initiate the locals into the great French repertoire: Les Huguenots and La Dame aux Camélias, La Juive and Les Rendez-vous bourgeois, Phèdre and Passé minuit, when she was captured by the soldiers of Fé-ni-han. The two Parisians reflect wistfully of home, and Fé-an-nich-ton sings the 'Ronde de Florette'. They both decide to run away, dancing as they go.

The conspirators return, but when alone, Fè-ni-han laments on his lot; he is actually Anastase Nourrisson, a native of Brive-la-Gaillarde and his only wish is to see France again. Ko-ko-ri-ko comes back threateningly and he and Fè-ni-han sing a duo in made-up Italian in the style of Bellini. In fact Fé-an-nich-ton and Ké-ki-ka-ko have been caught by Ko-ko-ri-ko while trying to flee, and the emperor has been asked for the death penalty, which he cannot refuse.

In their distress, Virginia and Alfred sing one last time La Ronde de Florette, and Fè-ni-han is amazed to hear them speaking French, likewise Fé-an-nich-ton and Ké-ki-ka-ko are surprised to hear the Emperor talking their language. Fè-ni-han dismisses the conspirators and explains how eight years previously he was dragged in front of the real prince Fè-ni-han and told that the only way he would avoid execution was by assuming the habits and role of emperor. He now makes the same offer to Ké-ki-ka-ko who naturally refuses, and asks why an insurrection is being plotted. Fè-ni-han, it seems, through not speaking Chinese had accidentally impaled the five most virtuous people in the land, and now faces a conspiracy against his rule. Ké-ki-ka-ko threatens to join the conspiracy so both summon the conspirators with the Ba-ta-clan anthem (mixed with the Chorale 'Ein feste Burg' from Les Huguenots). Finally, Fè-ni-han is handed a letter from the chief conspirator on a silver platter, revealing that he, Ko-ko-ri-ko, is also of French origin (born rue Mouffetard) and he is ready to provide the means for their escape in return for being allowed himself to become Emperor. All ends happily with a reprise of the Ba-ta-clan anthem, and Fé-an-nich-ton, Ké-ki-ka-ko and Fé-ni-han prepare to depart for France.

While the historical butt of the satire, Napoléon III, has passed, the situation mocked is timeless, the emperor Fé-ni-han being able to represent any great ruler on earth. Three years after the coup that replaced the Republic with the Empire and as France celebrated a victory in Crimea, the fake Chinese poke fun at the chauvinism of the time; in Second French Empire France, everything is under state surveillance, little different from the imaginary China depicted on stage. Kracauer summed up the target of the piece as; “Power is a joke and court life mere mummery”.

26 December
Giuseppe Verdi - Giovanna de Guzman

Giovanna de Guzman
italian version of Les vêpres siciliennes
. The opera was given under various titles: as Batilda di Turenne when seen by Verdi in Naples in January 1858. After the unification of Italy in 1861, it could be performed with its Italian title, I vespri Siciliani

Ernest Chausson

Ernest Chausson

Ernest Chausson, in full Amédée-Ernest Chausson, (born Jan. 21, 1855, Paris, France—died June 10, 1899, Limay), composer whose small body of compositions has given him high rank among French composers of the late 19th century.


After obtaining a doctorate degree in law, Chausson entered the Paris Conservatory in 1879 for a course of study with Jules Massenet and César Franck. At this time he also began visiting Munich and Bayreuth, where he saw Richard Wagner’s operas Der fliegende Holländer (1843; The Flying Dutchman), Tristan und Isolde (1865), and in 1882, the premiere of Parsifal. These encounters with the works of Wagner greatly expanded his musical universe, until then confined largely to French operatic and sacred styles.

For the remainder of his life Chausson quietly cultivated his art as a composer, supported by a modest inheritance. Determined to counter any imputations of amateurism, he laboured persistently over his scores and presided over a salon where professional musicians of many sorts could be found, including the young composers Claude Debussy and Isaac Albéniz, pianist Alfred-Denis Cortot, and violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. Eager to promote French music, he served for several years as secretary of the Société Nationale de Musique, while also offering enthusiastic support to younger French composers.

As a true member of the Franck circle, Chausson cultivated a style that became dramatic and richly chromatic, while also maintaining a certain reserve that was an enduring feature of French taste. This can be seen in his large-scale productions, such as the Poème de l’amour et de la mer for solo voice and orchestra (1882–90; revised 1893), the Poème for solo violin and orchestra (1896), and his Symphony in B-flat Major (1889–90). For his opera Le Roi Arthus (1895; first performed 1903), Chausson, in Wagnerian fashion, composed his own libretto and incorporated a system of leit-motifs.


Ernest Chausson : Symphony in B-flat major, Op.20 Jean Fournet (Conductor) Pasdeloup Orchestra

Ernest Chausson - Concert Op.21 (1892)

Dechopol Kowintaweewat , violin 
Emile Naoumoff, piano 
Sara Chen, violin
Pablo Muńoz , violin
Jae Choi, Cello 

(Anna Asieieva - Violin, Indira Rahmatulla - Cello, Lidia Nochovska - Piano)

Ernest Chausson - La Légende De Sainte Cécile Et La Tempête


John Everett Millais - Ophelia

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