1756 - 1791
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific composer and wrote in many genres.
Perhaps his best-admired work is in opera, the piano concerto and sonata, the symphony, and in the string quartet and string quintet.
Mozart also wrote much work for solo piano, other forms of chamber music, masses and other religious music, and numerous dances, divertimentos, and other forms of light entertainment.
How Mozart's compositions are listed. The indication "K." or "KV" refers to Köchel Verzeichnis (Köchel catalogue), i.e. the (more or less) chronological (i.e. by composition date) catalogue of Mozart's works by Ludwig von Köchel. This catalog has been amended several times, leading to ambiguity over some KV numbers.
The compositions of Mozart listed below are grouped thematically, i.e. by type of composition. Not all thematic groups of Mozart's works have a separate numbering that is generally accepted: Köchel only numbers symphonies (1 to 41), piano concertos (1 to 27, leaving out some early transcriptions by Mozart) and a few other groups. On the other hand, for most chamber music and vocal music there is no such numbering (or at least no generally accepted one).
Only relatively few of Mozart's compositions have opus numbers, as not so many of his compositions were published during his lifetime, so numbering by opus number proves quite impractical for Mozart compositions.
Apollo et Hyacinthus, K. 38 (1767)
Bastien und Bastienne, K. 50/46b (1768)
La finta semplice, K. 51 (1768)
Mitridate, re di Ponto, K. 87 (1770)
Ascanio in Alba, K. 111 (1771)
Il sogno di Scipione, K. 126 (1772)
Lucio Silla, K. 135 (1772)
Thamos, König in Ägypten, K. 345/336a (1773, 1775)
La finta giardiniera, K. 196 (1774–75)
Il re pastore, K. 208 (1775)
Zaide, K. 344 (1779)
Idomeneo, K. 366 (1781)
Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K. 384 (1782)
L'oca del Cairo, K. 422 (1783)
Lo sposo deluso, K. 430
Der Schauspieldirektor, K. 486 (1786)
Le nozze di Figaro, K. 492 (1786)
Don Giovanni, K. 527 (1787)
Così fan tutte, K. 588 (1789)
Die Zauberflöte (The magic flute), K. 620 (1791)
La clemenza di Tito, K. 621 (1791)
Childhood symphonies (1764–1771)
Salzburg-era symphonies (1771–1777)
Late symphonies (1778–1788)
KV 38 - Apollo et Hyacinthus
- Intrada (0:00)
- Coro e solo (Chorus, Oebalus) Numen o Latonium (2:45)
- Aria (Haycinthus) Saepe terrent numina (7:13)
- Aria (Apollo) Iam pastor Apollo (15:03)
- Aria (Melia) Laetari, Iocari (18:48)
- Aria (Zephyrus) En! duos conspicis (25:29)
- Duetto (Melia, Apollo) Discede crudelis! (29:10)
- Accompagnato (Hyacinthus, Oebalus) Non est - Quis ergo (35:29)
- Aria (Oebalus) Ut navis in aequore luxuriante (38:04)
- Duetto (Oebalus, Melia) Natus cadit, atque Deus (44:23)
- Terzetto (Apollo, Melia, Oebalus) Tandem post turbida fulmina (50:05)
Performed on May 13, 1767 at the Great Hall of Salzburg University. Latin text by Rufinus Widl.
Kiselev: Death of Hyacinth
Apollo et Hyacinthus
Apollo et Hyacinthus is an opera, K. 38, written in 1767 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was 11 years old at the time. It is Mozart's first true opera (when one considers that Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots is simply a sacred drama). It is in three acts. As is suggested by the name, the opera is based upon Greek mythology as told by Roman poet Ovid in his masterwork Metamorphoses. Interpreting this work, Rufinus Widl wrote the libretto in Latin.
Following the short intrada in D major, the work opens with the prologue where Hyacinth confides in Zephyr of the youths attachment to Apollo and of Zephyr's jealousy. Next, King Oebalus and Melia appear at an altar where they are preparing a sacrifice to Apollo. A storm soon begins to brew and destroys the altar with lightning. Oebalus's son assures him that they have done nothing to conjure the wrath of Apollo. Towards the end of the prologue, Apollo appears, disguised as a shepherd. He announces that Jupiter has banished him and he asks for Oebalus's friendship, which he is quickly given. Soon, a mutual attraction is aroused between Melia and Apollo and he asks of evidence of her love for him.
Oebalus tells Melia that Apollo has requested her hand and Melia is overjoyed. However, Zephyr soon enters with the terrible news that, while sporting in the woods, Apollo threw a discus and fatally struck Hyacinth in the head. Oebalus, in a rage, orders Apollo to be banished from his kingdom. Zephyr, in an aside to the audience, confesses his guilt but eagerly obeys Oebalus's order and then proceeds to make advances on Melia in Apollo's absence. Melia refuses to consider Zephyr's advances. While he is making these inappropriate advances on Melia, Apollo appears, professes his innocence and turns Zephyr into a wind. Melia still believes Apollo to be the murderer of her brother and now begins to deny Apollo's advances.
The final act begins with the final breaths of Hyacinth where he describes the real cause of his murder to his father. Oebalus realizes Zephyr's guilt while he watches his own son die. Melia then enters and tells her father that she has denied Apollo before she learns of Zephyr's guilt as well. Oebalus and Melia wallow in their misfortune and the loss of the favor of their protecting god before Apollo again appears, claiming that love has compelled him to return to Melia. Beautiful flowers then rise from Hyacinth's grave, Apollo and Melia are engaged and Apollo ensures that the kingdom will flourish forever under his protection.
KV 50 (46b) - Bastien und Bastienne
- Intrada (0:00)
- Aria (Bastienne) Mein liebster Freund hat mich verlassen
- Aria (Bastienne) Ich geh' jetzt auf die Weide
- Aria (Colas) Befraget mich ein zartes Kind
- Aria (Bastienne) Wenn mein Bastien einst im Scherze
- Aria (Bastienne) Würd' ich auch, wie manche Buhlerinnen
- Duetto (Colas, Bastienne) Auf den Rat, den ich gegeben
- Aria (Bastien) Großen Dank dir abzustatten
- Aria (Bastien) Geh'! du sagst mir eine Fabel
- Aria (Colas) Diggi, daggi, shurry, murry
- Aria (Bastien) Meiner Liebsten schöne Wangen
- Aria (Bastienne) Er war mir sonst treu und ergeben
- Duetto (Bastien, Bastienne) Geh hin!
- Duetto (Bastienne, Bastien) Geh! Herz von Flandern!
- Trio (Colas, Bastien, Bastienne) Kinder! Kinder!
Shepherd and Shepherdess Reposing (1761), by François Boucher
Bastien und Bastienne
Bastien und Bastienne (Bastien and Bastienne), K. 50 (revised in 1964 to K. 46b) is a one-act singspiel, a comic opera, by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Bastien und Bastienne was one of Mozart's earliest operas, written in 1768 when he was only twelve years old. It was allegedly commissioned by Viennese physician and 'magnetist' Dr. Franz Mesmer (who himself would later be parodied in Così fan tutte) as a satire of the 'pastoral' genre then prevalent, and specifically as a parody of the opera Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The German libretto is by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern, Johann Heinrich Friedrich Müller (de) and Johann Andreas Schachtner, based on Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne by Justine Favart and Harny de Guerville.
Place: A pastoral village
Bastienne, a shepherdess, fears that her "dearest friend", Bastien, has forsaken her for another pretty face, and decides to go into the pasture to be comforted by her flock of lambs.
Before she can leave, however, she runs into Colas, the village soothsayer. Bastienne requests the help of his magical powers to help win back her Bastien. Colas (being a soothsayer) knows all about the problem, and comforts her with the knowledge that Bastien has not abandoned her, rather, he's merely been distracted lately by 'the lady of the manor'. His advice is to act coldly towards Bastien, which will make him come running back.
Bastien is heard approaching, so Bastienne hides herself. Bastien swaggers in, proclaiming how much he loves Bastienne. Colas informs him that Bastienne has a new lover. Bastien is shocked and asks the magician for help.
Colas opens his book of spells and recites a nonsense aria filled with random syllables and Latin quotations. Colas declares the spell a success and that Bastienne is in love with Bastien once more. Bastienne, however, decides to keep up the game a bit longer and spurns Bastien with great vehemence. Bastien threatens suicide, which Bastienne merely shrugs off.
Finally, the two decide that they have gone far enough and agree to reconcile. Colas joins them as they all sing a final trio in praise of the magician.
KV 51 (46a) - La finta semplice
- Sinfonia (Molto allegro - Andante - Molto allegro) (0:00)
- Coro I,1 (Tutti) Bella cosa è far l'amore! (5;42)
- Aria I,1 (Simone) Troppa briga a prender moglie (7:39)
- Aria I,2 (Giacinta) Marito io vorrei (10:24)
- Aria I,3 (Cassandro) Non c'è al mondo altro che donne (14:48)
- Aria I,3 (Fracasso) Guarda la donna in viso (16:43)
- Aria I,4 (Rosina) Colla bocca, e non col core (21:44)
- Aria I,5 (Polidoro) Cosa ha mai la donna indosso (24:45)
- Aria I,6 (Cassandro) Ella vuole ed io torrei (28:34)
- Aria I,7 (Rosina) Senti l'eco, ove t'aggiri (32:49)
- Aria I,8 (Ninetta) Chi mi vuol bene (39:17)
- Finale I,9 (Tutti) Dove avete la creanza? (41:23)
- Aria II,1 (Ninetta) Un marito, donne care (48:46)
- Aria II,2 (Simone) Con serte persone vuol esser bastone (51:31)
- Aria II,3 (Giacinta) Se a maritarmi arrivo (53:29)
- Aria II,5 (Rosina) Amoretti, che ascosi qui siete (56:29)
- Aria II,6 (Cassandro) Ubriaco non son io (60:22)
- Aria II,6 (Polidoro) Sposa cara, sposa bella (62:19)
- Aria II,7 (Rosina) Ho sentito a dir da tutte (66:43)
- Duetto II,8 (Cassandro, Fracasso) Cospetton, cospettonaccio! (71:39)
- Aria II,11 (Fracasso) In voi, belle, è leggiadria (74:35)
- Finale II,12 (Tutti) T'ho detto, buffone (77:55)
- Aria III,1 (Simone) Vieni, vieni, oh mia Ninetta (85:17)
- Aria III,1 (Ninetta) Sono in amore, voglio marito (88:02)
- Aria III,2 (Giacinta) Che scompiglio, che flagello (91:08)
- Aria III,2 (Fracasso) Nelle guere d'amore (93:59)
- Finale III,4 (Tutti) Se le pupille io giro (101:30)
- Aria I,3 (Fracasso) Guarda la Donna in viso (111:41)
- Aria III,1 (Ninetta) Sono in amore, voglio marito (116:44)
La finta semplice
La finta semplice (The Fake Innocent), K. 51 (46a) is an opera buffa in three acts for seven voices and orchestra, composed in 1768 by then 12-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Young Mozart and his father Leopold were spending the year in Vienna, where Leopold was trying to establish his son as an opera composer. He was acting on a suggested request from the Emperor Joseph II that the young boy should write an opera.
Leopold chose an Italian libretto by the Vienna court poet Marco Coltellini, which was based on an early work by Carlo Goldoni. During rehearsals, the opera was the victim of intrigues from competing composers claiming that the work was not from the 12-year-old boy, but from his father. Threatened with a sabotaged first night by the impresario Giuseppe Affligio, Leopold prudently decided to withdraw. The opera was never staged in Vienna. It was performed the following year in Salzburg at the request of the Prince-Archbishop on 1 May 1769.
Place: Cassandro's estate near Cremona
Time: mid-18th century
Captain Fracasso and his Hungarian troops are stationed near Cremona. He and his sergeant Simone have been lodging for two months in the home of Don Cassandro, who lives in his grand house with his weak-in-the-head brother Polidoro, and their beautiful sister, Giacinta. Inevitably, Captain Fracasso falls in love with Giacinta, and Simone with the chambermaid Ninetta. Fracasso and Giacinta want to marry, as do Simone and Ninetta. But they can't do it without the consent of the brothers Cassandro and Polidoro. The two brothers are comfortable with their status quo – they are confirmed misogynists, and unwilling to part with their sister. The wily soubrette Ninetta devises a plan to outwit the brothers, with the collaboration of Rosina, Fracasso's sister, who happens to be "visiting". Rosina (prima donna) poses as a naïve innocent who is going to make both brothers fall in love with her until they agree to the marriages. Polidoro falls in love with Rosina first and proposes marriage immediately. At first Cassandro is indifferent, but eventually his defences are completely disarmed through Rosina's feigned naïvety and innocence. So far, the plan is working.
Polidoro naively believes Rosina is planning to marry him. Rosina coaches him for a confrontation with his brother Cassandro. Polidoro demands half of his inheritance from Cassandro. Giacinta fears a quarrel between the brothers, but the others look forward to their fight. Rosina and Fracasso congratulate each other for their successful plan to outwit Cassandro. They continue to engineer the rest of the plot. Simone takes Giacinta into hiding. Fracasso tells the brothers that Giacinta has fled, absconding with the family money. The plan is so successful that Ninetta disappears as well. Simone announces that Ninetta has also fled, taking along whatever she could get. The brothers agree that whoever can bring the two girls back should be allowed to marry them, even keeping whatever loot can be found. Fracasso and Simone volunteer to go on the search.
Simone finds Ninetta and they rejoice that they soon will get married. Fracasso finds Giacinta, but she is afraid that when she returns, her brother will not agree to her marrying Fracasso, but Fracasso assures Giacinta that Rosina has bewitched the brothers and has them under her complete control. Fracasso and Giacinta rejoice at their pairing off. Rosina is confronted with her own choice between both brothers. She rejects Polidoro, who is heartbroken and agrees to marry Cassandro. They both mercilessly mock Polidoro for his stupidity. All ends well for the three couples, except for the odd man out, Polidoro, who is left alone.
KV 87 (74a) - Mitridate, re di Ponto (with alternative arias)
- Sinfonia in D major (Allegro - Andante grazioso - Presto) (0:00)
- Aria I,2 (Aspasia) Al destin, che la minaccia (5:56)
- Aria I,3 (Sifare) Soffre il mio cor con pace (12:40)
- Aria I,6 (Arbate) L'odio nel cor frenate (20:05)
- Aria I,7 (Aspasia) Nel sen mi palpita dolente (23:57)
- Aria I,8 (Sifare) Parto, nel gran cimento (26:15)
- Aria I,9 (Allegro) Venga pur, minacci e frema (30:26)
- Marcia I,10 (Maestoso) (37:44)
- Cavata I,10 (Mitridate) Se di lauri il crine adorno (40:46)
- Aria I,11 (Ismene) In faccia all'oggetto (45:39)
- Aria I,13 (Mitridate) Quel ribelle e quell'ingrato (51:38)
- Aria II,1 (Farnace) Va, l'error mio palesa (54:35)
- Aria II,4 (Mitridate) Tu, che fedel mi sei (57:28)
- Aria II,7 (Sifare) Lungi da te, mio bene (1:01:41)
- Aria II,8 (Aspasia) Nel grave tormento (1:09:47)
- Aria II,12 (Ismene) So quanto a te dispiace (1:14:42)
- Aria II,13 (Farnace) Son reo; l'error confesso (1:20:46)
- Aria II,14 (Mitridate) Già di pietà mi spoglio (1:23:32)
- Duetto II,15 (Sifare, Aspasia) Se viver non degg'io (1:25:53)
- Aria III,1 (Ismene) Tu sai per chi m'accese (1:32:32)
- Aria III,3 (Mitridate) Vado incontro al fato estremo (1:38:22)
- Accompagnato ed aria III,4 (Aspasia) Ah ben ne fui presaga!...Pallid'ombre (1:40:47)
- Aria III,6 (Sifare) Se il rigor d'ingrata sorte (1:47:57)
- Aria III,8 (Marzio) Se di regnar sei vago (1:50:25)
- Aria III,9 (Farnace) Già dagli occhi il velo è tolto (1:54:48)
- Quintetto III,12 (Sifare, Aspasia, Farnace, Ismene, Arbate) Non si ceda (2:04:37)
- Aria I,2 (Aspasia) Al destin, che la minaccia (2:05:26)
- Aria I,11 (Ismene) In faccia all'oggetto (2:14:13)
- Aria II,7 (Sifare) Lungi da te, mio bene (2:19:23)
- Duetto II,15 (Sifare, Aspasia) Se viver non degg'io (2:27:05)
- Aria III,3 (Mitridate) Vado incontro al fato estremo (2:35:38)
Mitridate, re di Ponto
Mitridate, re di Ponto (Mithridates, King of Pontus), K. 87 (74a), is an early opera seria in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto is by Vittorio Amedeo Cigna-Santi (it) after Giuseppe Parini's Italian translation of Jean Racine's play Mithridate.
Mozart wrote Mitridate while touring Italy in 1770. The opera was first performed at the Teatro Regio Ducal, Milan, on 26 December 1770 (at the Milan Carnival).
Place: around the Crimean port of Nymphæum
Time: 63BC during the conflict between Rome and Pontus
Mitridate, having suffered a heavy defeat in battle, is presumed dead. This false news is passed by Arbate, the Governor, to Aspasia (Mitridate's fiancée) and to Farnace and Sifare (Mitridate's sons).
Arbate, the governor of Nymphæum, welcomes Sifare. We learn that Sifare resents his brother, Farnace, because of his brother’s strong ties with their enemies, the Romans. Arbate pledges his loyalty to Sifare. Aspasia pleads for Sifare to help her against advances by Farnace. He accepts her plea and reveals his love for her.
Farnace makes his advances to Aspasia. She refuses, supported by Sifare, who protects her from his forceful brother. News arrives that Mitridate is alive and is approaching the city. Arbate urges the brothers to conceal their differences and greet their father. The brothers agree to hide their feelings for Aspasia. Farnace conspires with Marzio, Roman legionary officer, against Mitridate.
Mitridate arrives on the shores of Nymphæaum with Princess Ismene, daughter of his ally the King of Parthia. Mitridate wants Farnace to marry Ismene, his promised bride. Ismene is in love with Farnace but senses problems and is worried about her future. Arbate tells Mitridate that Farnace is pursuing Aspasia, not mentioning Sifare. The jealous Mitridate swears revenge on Farnace.
Farnace scorns and threatens Ismene. She tells Mitridate, who suggests that she should marry Sifare. Mitridate asks Aspasia for immediate marriage but she hesitates, proving to him that she is unfaithful. Aspasia confesses love to Sifare but they both agree to part to save their honour. Sifare plans to leave and Aspasia is troubled by the conflict between love and duty.
Mitridate is aware of Farnace's plot against him with the Romans; he plans his revenge, despite Marzio’s offer of peace, and arrests Farnace to execute him. Ismene rescues the prince, who admits his treachery but implicates Sifare. Mitridate tricks Aspasia into admitting her love for Sifare and swears revenge. Aspasia and Sifare wish to die together, in fear of Mitridate’s threats.
Ismene, still in love with Farnace, tries to convince Mitridate to forgive Aspasia. The Romans attack and Mitridate leaves for battle. Aspasia contemplates suicide by poison. Sifare also wants to die, and joins his father in the battle.
Marzio liberates Farnace and promises him the rule of Nymphæum. Farnace changes his mind, deciding to side with Mitridate.
Defeated, Mitridate commits suicide, avoiding captivity. Before he dies he gives his blessing to Sifare and Aspasia and forgives Farnace, who now agrees to marry Ismene. All four pledge to free the world from Rome.
KV 111 - Ascanio in Alba
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Ballo di Grazie I,1 (3:39)
- Coro I,1 (Geni, Grazie) Di te più amabile (5:03)
- Aria I,1 (Venere) L'ombra de' rami tuoi (7:25)
- Aria I,2 (Ascanio) Cara, lontana ancora (12:14)
- Coro I,3 (Pastori) Venga de' sommi eroi (17:10)
- Aria I,3 (Fauno) Se il labbro più non dice (18:44)
- Coro e ballo I,4 (Pastori) Hai di Diana il core (22:15)
- Aria I,4 (Aceste) Per la gioia in questo seno (26:13)
- Cavatina I,4 (Silvia) Si, ma d'un altro amore (31:19)
- Aria I,4 (Silvia) Come è felice stato (33:34)
- Aria I,5 (Ascanio) Ah di si nobil alma (37:53)
- Aria I,5 (Venere) Al chiaror di que' bei rai (42:02)
- Aria II,1 (Silvia) Spiega il desio, le piume (45:52)
- Coro II,1 (Pastorelle) Già l'ore sen volano (53:05)
- Aria II,3 (Fauno) Dal tuo gentil sembiante (54:32)
- Aria II,4 (Ascanio) Al mio ben mi veggio avanti (1:05:07)
- Aria II,4 (Silvia) Infelici affetti miei (1:09:29)
- Coro II,4 (Pastorelle) Che stano evento (1:14:11)
- Aria II,5 (Ascanio) Torna mio bene, ascolta (1:14:38)
- Aria II,6 (Aceste) Sento, che il cor mi dice (1:18:27)
- Coro II,6 (Pastori, Ninfe) Scendi celeste Venere (1:22:48)
- Terzetto II,6 (Silvia, Ascanio, Aceste) Ah caro sposo, oh dio! (1:24:08)
- Coro II,6 (Tutti) Alma Dea tutto il mondo governa (1:29:08)
KV 126 - Il sogno di Scipione
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Aria (Scipione) Risolver non osa (5:21)
- Aria (Fortuna) Lieve sono al par del vento (12:46)
- Aria (Costanza) Ciglio che al sol si gira (19:34)
- Coro (Tutti) Germe di cento eroi (27:26)
- Aria (Publio) Se vuoi che te raccolgano (29:51)
- Aria (Emilio) Voi colaggiu ridete (37:31)
- Aria (Publio) Quercia annosa su l'erte pendici (45:38)
- Aria (Fortuna) A chi serena io miro (48:50)
- Aria (Costanza) Biancheggia in mar lo scoglio (55:46)
- Aria (Scipione) Di' che se l'arbitra del mondo intero (1:02:37)
- Aria (Licenza) Ah, perchè cercar degg'io (1:09:57)
- Coro (Tutti) Cento volte con lieto sembiante (1:18:22)
- Alternative Aria (Licenza) Ah, perchè cercar degg'io (1:19:44)
Ascanio in Alba
Ascanio in Alba, K. 111, is a pastoral opera in two parts (Festa teatrale in due atti) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Giuseppe Parini. It was commissioned by the Empress Maria Theresa.
It was first performed at the Teatro Regio Ducal in Milan on 17 October 1771.
Place: the site of the future city of Alba Longa, near Rome
Time: mythical times.
The opening scene introduces Venus and Ascanio, the son she had by Aeneas. (In most classical sources, Venus/Aphrodite is the mother of Aeneas.) The goddess vaunts the charms of Alba and invites her son to go and rule there. She urges him not to reveal his identity to Silvia, a nymph to whom he is betrothed, but to introduce himself to her under a false identity to test her virtue. While shepherds summon their promised ruler, Fauno reveals that the smiling face of Aceste, a priest, is a sign that the day will be a day of supreme happiness. Obeying the goddess, Ascanio pretends to be a foreigner attracted by the beauties of the place. Aceste tells the shepherds that their valley will be the site of a fine city and that they will have a sovereign, Ascanio, before the day is out. He also informs Silvia that she will be Ascanio’s bride, but she replies that she is in love with a young man she has seen in a dream. The priest reassures her, saying the young man in her dream can be none other than Ascanio. Venus then appears to Ascanio and asks him to test the girl a little longer before revealing his true identity.
Ascanio spots Silvia among the shepherds and tries to talk to her. The girl immediately recognizes the young man from her dreams. Fauno intervenes and suggests to “the foreigner” (Ascanio) that he should go off and announce the building of Alba in foreign parts. Thus convinced that the foreigner is not Ascanio, Silvia is deeply saddened. She finally decides to accept her fate but declares she never will love anyone else than Ascanio.
Aceste consoles Silvia, saying that her tribulations are about to come to an end. Venus is invoked by a magnificent chorus. Silvia and Ascanio add their voices to the chorus and the goddess descends on her chariot surrounded by clouds. Venus unites the two lovers and explains how she had intended her son to discover the virtue of his fiancée. Aceste pronounces an oath of fidelity and loyalty to Venus, who then retires. It only remains for Ascanio to perpetuate the race of Aeneas and guide the city of Alba to prosperity.
Il sogno di Scipione
Mozart was given a private performance in the Archbishop's Palace in Salzburg on 1 May 1772
Place: North Africa, during the reign of Massinissa, King of Eastern Numidia
Time: 200 B.C.
Fortuna and Constanza approach the sleeping Scipio and offer to accompany him through life. However, first he has to choose between Fortuna, the provider of the world’s good things, and the reliable, trustworthy Constanza.
Scipio asks for time to think. Neither in his heart nor mind can he take in what has happened, nor can he choose.
Fortuna and Constanza permit him to ask questions: he wants to know where he is. He fell asleep in the kingdom of Massinissa, but now has no idea of where he is. Fortuna tells him that he is in the Temple of Heaven. The magnificent lights are the stars against the blue background of the universe. He can hear the music of the harmony of the spheres.
Scipio asks who creates this harmony. Constanza replies that the power behind it moves the spheres like strings on a zither, finely tuned by hand and ear. Scipio responds by asking why this sound is inaudible to mortals on earth. Constanza explains that this is due to the inadequacy of their senses; looking at the sun, they see only the glare, whilst hearing a waterfall, they know nothing of its destructive power. Scipio then asks who dwells in this eternal world. Fortuna indicates an approaching cortege — heroes, his forefathers, Rome’s greatest sons. Scipio sees the dead Publius and asks if dead heroes live here. Publius assures him that the light of immortality resurrects the body, freeing it from the burden of mortality. He who has thought of, felt for and devoted himself to others will live forever; those who have lived only for themselves are not deserving of immortality. Scipio goes to seek his father. He is delighted to find him, but surprised when it appears that this joy is not mutual. His father Emilio tells him that joy in heaven is complete, because it is not accompanied by suffering; he points to the Earth, small and miserable and covered in cloud, the home of mad misguided people, indifferent to other’s pain.
Aghast at the sight of the Earth, Scipio begs his father to be allowed to remain in the eternal land. However, he is told by Publius that he has a great mission to complete on Earth — to destroy an enemy, after making his choice between Constanza and Fortuna.
Scipio asks Fortuna what kind of help she can offer him in completing his task. She tells him of her power to destroy and create, to corrupt innocence and empower evil. Who can resist her? Constanza says that only she can bestow the power of loyalty. Fortuna cannot go beyond the limits dictated by Constanza. Virtue can only occasionally be defeated by violence, while evil deeds, unlike good ones, are transient. Fortuna can manage rare strikes, but cannot deprive heroes of hope and faith. Thus Scipio chooses Constanza, braving Fortuna’s anger unafraid, because the eternal kingdom is dearer to his heart.
Fortuna, furious, calls plagues down as vengeance on Scipio. He however keeps his courage through a foul storm. He reawakes in the kingdom of Massinissa, feeling the presence of Constanza beside him. The moral behind his dream was a hymn of praise to the eternal virtues offered by heaven, a model for all those who believe in God. In the final scene Licenza praises Scipio’s choice and explains that the real protagonist of the play is not Scipio, but the dedicatee — Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus (Girolamo) Graf von Colloredo.
KV 135 - Lucio Silla
- Sinfonia (Molto allegro - Andante - Molto allegro) (0:00)
- Aria I,1 (Cinna) Vieni ov'amor t'invita (7:02)
- Accompagnato I,2 (Cecilio) Dunque sperar poss'io (14:24)
- Aria I,2 (Cecilio) Il tenero momento (16:40)
- Aria I,3 (Celia) Se lusinghiera speme (24:24)
- Aria I,5 (Giunia) Dalla sponda tenebrosa (29:51)
- Aria I,6 (Silla) Il desio di vendetta (36:26)
- Accompagnato I,7 (Cecilio) Morte, morte fatal (41:27)
- Coro e arioso I,8 (Giunia) Fuor di queste urne dolenti (46:10)
- Duetto I,9 (Giunia, Cecilio) D'elisio in sen m'attendi (52:37)
- Aria II,1 (Aufidio) Guerier, che d'un acciaro (59:04)
- Aria II,3 (Cecilio) Quest' improvviso tremito (1:04:34)
- Aria II,4 (Celia) Se il labbro timido (1:07:29)
- Aria II,5 (Giunia) Ah se il crudel periglio (1:11:30)
- Accompagnato II,6 (Cinna) Ah si, scuotasi omai (1:19:24)
- Aria II,6 (Cinna) Nel fortunato istante (1:20:06)
- Aria II,8 (Silla) D'ogni pietà mi spoglio (1:24:38)
- Aria II,9 (Cecilio) Ah se a morir mi chiama (1:26:58)
- Aria II,10 (Celia) Quando sugl'arsi campi (1:33:44)
- Accompagnato II,11 (Giunia) In un istante oh come (1:40:18)
- Aria II,11 (Giunia) Parto, m'affretto (1:43:19)
- Coro II,12 (Tutti) Se gloria il crin ti cinse (1:47:43)
- Terzetto II,14 (Silla, Cecilio, Giunia) Quell' orgoglioso sdegno (1:49:57)
- Aria III,1 (Celia) Strider sento la procella (1:53:53)
- Aria III,2 (Cinna) De' più superbi il core (1:57:47)
- Aria III,4 (Cecilio) Pupille amate (2:04:12)
- Accompagnato III,5 (Giunia) Sposo...mia vita... (2:08:45)
- Aria III,5 (Giunia) Fra i pensier più funesti di morte (2:11:58)
- Finale III,8 (Tutti) Il gran Silla a Roma in seno (2:14:58)
- Ornamented version from 1778 of Aria II,9 (Cecilio) Ah se a morir mi chiama (2:18:06)
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Lucio Silla (pronounced /ˈluːtʃoʊ ˈsɪlɒ/, Italian pronunciation: [ˈluːtʃo ˈsilla]), K. 135, is an Italian opera in three acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto was written by Giovanni de Gamerra.
It was first performed on 26 December 1772 at the Teatro Regio Ducal in Milan.
The story concerns the Roman dictator Lucio Silla (Lucius Sulla) who lusts after Giunia, the daughter of his enemy Gaius Marius. Giunia, on the other hand, loves the exiled senator Cecilio.
Scene 1: A secluded spot on the banks of the Tiber'. The exiled Senator Cecilio meets his friend Cinna who tells him his betrothed Giunia mourns his death, a lie by the dictator Silla so that he can win her for himself. Cinna advises Cecilio to meet Giunia by the tomb of her father (murdered hero Gaius Marius). Cecilio is filled with joy at the idea and Cinna shares his joy and predicts the freedom of Rome (aria: "Vieni ov' amor t' inita").
Scene 2: Cecilio excited at the prospect of meeting his betrothed sings of his love (aria: "Il tenero momento").
Scene 3: Giunia's apartments. Silla seeks the advice of his sister Celia on his approach with Giunia and she advises subtlety and kindness (aria: "Se lusinghiera speme").
Scene 4: On Silla's approach, Giunia declares her love for Cecilio and her hate for Silla, her father's enemy (aria: "Dalla sponda tenebrosa").
Scene 5: Alone, Silla, insulted, decides to behave as a tyrant (aria: "Il desìo di vendetta, e di morte").
Scene 6: Cecilio waits by the tomb for Giunia.
Scene 7: Giunia arrives (chorus and ariosa: "Fuor di queste urne dolente").
An archway decorated with military trophies
Scene 1: Silla is joined by Celia to whom he tells of his plans to wed Scene 3: Giunia and for Celia to wed her beloved Cinna on this day.
Scene 2: Cinna restrains Cecilio who has his sword drawn trying to follow Silla, believing he has been instructed by the spirit of Gaius Marius to seek revenge. Cinna tells him to consider Giunia and his rage is controlled (aria: "Quest' improvviso trèmito").
Scene 4: Giunia consults with Cinna who suggests she accept Silla's proposal and then murder him in their wedding bed. Giunia refuses, stating that vengeance is for Heaven alone to consider. She asks Cinna to make sure that Cecilio stays hidden from danger (aria: "Ah se il crudel periglio").
Scene 5: Cinna resolves to kill Silla himself (aria: "Nel fortunato istante").
Scene 6: Hanging gardens: Silla's love for Giunia starts to bring out his compassion.
Scene 7: Giunia's hateful face angers him again and he threatens her with death but not to die alone (aria: "D' ogni pieta mi spoglio").
Scene 8: With Cecilio, Giunia worries about Silla's words and they part.
Scene 9: Celia asks Giunia to accept Silla's proposal for the sake of happiness saying she is also to be married to Cinna (aria: "Quando sugl' arsi campi").
Scene 10: Giunia ponders her wretchedness.
Scene 11: the Capitol
Silla asks the Senate and the people of Rome to reward him as a hero of Rome with the marriage to Giunia.
Scene 12: When Cecilio appears, there is confrontation (trio: "Quell' orgoglioso sdegno").
Scene 1: Entrance to the dungeons. Cecilio has been imprisoned. Cinna and Celia has gained access and Cinna asks Celia to convince Cecilio to repent and forget his love. Cinna promises to marry Celia if she is successful, for which she is hopeful (aria: "Strider sento la procella").
Scene 2: Whilst Cecilio accepts his fate Cinna tells him not to worry, Silla's heart over his head will bring about his own downfall (aria: "De' più superbi il core").
Scene 3: Silla has allowed Giunia one last visit to Cecilio and they say their farewells (aria: "Pupille amate").
Scene 4: Giunia alone with her thoughts of Cecilio's impending death thinks of her own (aria: "Frà I pensier più funesti di morte").
Scene 5: The audience chamber. Before the Senators and the people of Rome, to everybody's surprise, Silla declares that he wishes Cecilio to live and marry Giunia. When questioned on his silence, Cinna declares his hatred of Silla and his intention of killing him. Silla issues his "punishment" to Cinna that he should marry his beloved Celia. He further declares that he will step down as dictator and restore liberty to Rome. He explains that he has seen proof that innocence and a virtuous heart is triumphant over power and glory. The people of Rome celebrate liberty and the greatness of Silla.
K 345 (336a) - Thamos, König in Ägypten
- Chor (Maestoso) Schon weichet dir, Sonne (0:00)
- Nach dem 1. Act (Maestoso - Allegro) (7:02)
- Nach dem 2. Act (Andante) (13:30)
- Nach dem 3. Act (Allegro) (17:52)
- Nach dem 4. Act (Allegro vivace assai) (20:49)
- Chor (Adagio maestoso - Allegretto - Vivace) Gottheit, über alle mächtig (24:13)
- Chor (Andante moderato) Ihr Kinder des Staubes (33:52)
- Ende dem 5. Act (41:00)
Thamos, King of Egypt
Thamos, King of Egypt (or King Thamos; in German, Thamos, König in Ägypten) is a play by Tobias Philipp, baron von Gebler, for which, between 1773 and 1780, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote incidental music, K. 345/336a, of an operatic character.
It is not known for certain whether the music that Mozart composed was performed with the play during his lifetime. The play's première took place at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna, probably on 4 April 1774, by which time two choruses had been written. Performances in Salzburg in 1776 and 1779-80 may have incorporated the orchestral interludes and the three choruses in their final form, respectively. The music was re-used in 1783 in a different play (set in India, not Egypt), Lanassa, by Karl Martin Plümicke.
The only named role in Mozart's music is Sethos, the high priest (baritone). There are parts for four other soloists (soprano, alto, tenor and bass) and for a chorus of priests and priestesses.
Thamos has succeeded his father, Ramesses, as king of Egypt, but Ramesses had usurped the throne from the rightful king, Menes, who is now disguised as the high priest, Sethos. Thamos loves Sais, a priestess, but she is really Menes' daughter Tharsis, for whom the high priestess Mirza is plotting marriage to Pheron, a treacherous general. When Menes reveals his true identity, Pheron is struck by lightning and Mirza kills herself. Menes cedes his crown to Thamos and Tharsis as all ends happily.
KV 196 - La finta giardiniera
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Introduzione I,1 (Tutti) Che lieto giorno (4:53)
- Aria I,1 (Ramiro) Se l'augellin sen fugge (10:58)
- Aria I,2 (Podestà) Dentro il mio petto (15:11)
- Aria I,4 (Sandrina) Noi donne poverine (21:18)
- Aria I,5 (Nardo) A forza di martelli (26:09)
- Aria I,7 (Contino) Che belta che leggiadria (30:17)
- Aria I,7 (Arminda) Si promette facilmente (33:53)
- Aria I,8 (Contino) Da Scirocco a Tramontana (38:31)
- Cavatina I,9 (Nardo) Un marito oh Dio (43:51)
- Aria I,9 (Serpetta) Appena mi vedon (45:24)
- Cavatina I,10 (Sandrina) Geme la tortorella (49:25)
- Finale I,11-15 (Tutti) Numi! che incanto (54:39)
- Aria II,2 (Arminda) Vorrei punitri (1:09:47)
- Aria II,4 (Nardo) Con un vezzo (1:13:20)
- Aria II,5 (Contino) Care pupille (1:16:41)
- Aria II,6 (Sandrina) Una voce sento al core (1:22:21)
- Aria II,7 (Podestà) Una damina, una nipote (1:28:57)
- Aria II,9 (Ramiro) Dolce d'amor compagna (1:32:55)
- Aria II,12 (Contino) Gia divento freddo (1:39:22)
- Aria II,14 (Serpetta) Che vuol godere (1:43:47)
- Aria II,15 (Sandrina) Crudeli, fermate (1:48:06)
- Cavatina II,15 (Sandrina) Ah dal pianto (1:51:43)
- Finale II,16 (Tutti) Fra quest' ombre (1:54:47)
- Aria e Duetto III,2 (Nardo, Contino, Sandrina) Mirate (2:11:04)
- Aria III,4 (Podestà) Mio padrone (2:14:11)
- Aria III,6 (Ramiro) Va pure ad altri (2:17:47)
- Duetto III,7 (Sandrina, Contino) Tu mi lasci (2:21:05)
- Coro III,8 (Tutti) Viva pur la giardiniera (2:28:47)
La finta giardiniera
La finta giardiniera ("The Pretend Garden-Girl"), K. 196, is an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart wrote it in Munich in January 1775 when he was 18 years old and it received its first performance on January 13 at the Salvator theater in Munich.
Time: the 18th century
Place:the Podestà's estate in Lagonero
Summary: The story follows Count Belfiore and the Marchioness Violante Onesti, who were lovers before Belfiore stabbed Violante in a fit of rage. The story begins with the revived Violante and her servant Roberto disguised as "Sandrina" and "Nardo," and quietly working in the mansion of the town Podestà. Violante discovers that Belfiore has become engaged to Arminda, the niece of the Podestà, and when Belfiore confesses his lingering love for Violante, Arminda jealously conspires to abduct the other woman. When Violante is found, she and Belfiore lose their minds and believe themselves to be Greek gods. When they regain their senses Violante forgives the Count and they fly to each other's arms. Arminda returns to Cavalier Ramiro, her spurned suitor, and Roberto finds love with Serpetta, another servant of the Podestà.
A garden with a wide staircase leading to the mansion of the Podestà.
The Podestà, Cavalier Ramiro and Serpetta descend the staircase as Sandrina and Nardo work in the garden. Together they praise the lovely day, but their happiness is feigned ("Che lieto giorno"). Sandrina is wretched because Don Anchise, the Podestà, is in love with her. Nardo is frustrated by Serpetta, who teases him but refuses to respond to his affections. Ramiro is bitter after being tossed aside by Arminda, and, because she has set her own cap at the Podestà, Serpetta is angry at Sandrina. The Podestà attempts to console Ramiro, but Ramiro can think of none but Arminda ("Se l'augellin sen fugge"). When they are left alone, Don Anchise professes love to Sandrina ("Dentro il mio petto"). Sandrina refuses his advances as politely as possible and, when Serpetta rudely interrupts, makes her escape.
Arminda's betrothed, Count Belfiore, arrives and is swept off his feet by her beauty ("Che beltà"). Arminda is quick to let him know that she is someone to be reckoned with ("Si promette facilmente"), but the Count is not deterred. The Count then boasts of his deeds and ancestry to the Podestà, tracing his family tree to Scipio, Cato and Marcus Aurelius ("Da Scirocco"). Don Anchise responds with a mixture of awe and skepticism, not caring who this buffoon of a Count is as long as he marries his niece.
In the garden, Arminda sees Sandrina and casually mentions her engagement to Belfiore. Stunned, Sandrina faints. When the Count arrives, Arminda leaves him to watch over Sandrina and rushes off to fetch her smelling salts. Belfiore is shocked to find that the gardener's girl is none other than his lost Violante (Finale: "Numi! Che incanto è questo?"). Arminda returns and is surprised to come face to face with Ramiro. Sandrina awakens and finds herself looking directly into the eyes of Belfiore. The Podestà enters and demands an explanation, but no one knows quite what to say. Sandrina wavers but decides not to reveal herself as Violante, while Arminda suspects that she's being deceived. The Podestà blames everything on Serpetta, who in turn blames Sandrina, and Ramiro is only certain of the fact that Arminda still does not love him.
A hall in the mansion of the Podestà.
Ramiro discovers Arminda and upbraids her for her inconstancy. When she refuses to listen, he departs, but not before promising revenge upon his rival. Belfiore enters in some distress, muttering that he has had no peace since he found Sandrina. Arminda overhears and confronts him, then leaves ("Vorrei punirti indegno"). Sandrina encounters Belfiore, and nearly betrays herself as Violante when she asks why he stabbed and deserted her. Belfiore is surprised by this outburst and once again sure that he has found his love, but Sandrina quickly reconstructs her disguise. She explains that she is not Violante, but that those were the Marchioness's dying words. Belfiore is nonetheless entranced, since "Sandrina" has the face of Violante, and he begins to serenade her ("Care pupille"). The Podestà interrupts them, and after mistakenly taking the Podestà's hand instead of Sandrina's, Belfiore retreats in embarrassment.
Alone with Sandrina, the Podestà again attempts to woo her. Ramiro interrupts, arriving from Milan with the news that Count Belfiore is wanted for the murder of Marchioness Violante Onesti. Don Anchise summons Belfiore for questioning and the Count, thoroughly baffled, implicates himself. Sandrina says she is Violante and the proceedings break up in confusion. The Count approaches Sandrina but she again denies him. She claims to have pretended to be the Marchioness to save him, and exits. Serpetta arrives moments later to tell the Podestà, Nardo and Ramiro that Sandrina has run away, when she has in fact been abducted by Arminda and Serpetta. The Podestà immediately organizes a search party.
A deserted, mountainous spot.
Abandoned in the wilderness, Sandrina is nearly frightened out of her wits (Crudeli, fermate!"). Small search parties composed of the Count and Nardo, Arminda, Serpetta, and the Podestà soon arrive (Finale: "Fra quest'ombra"). In the darkness the Podestà mistakes Arminda for Sandrina and she him for the Count, while the Count thinks Serpetta is Sandrina and she takes him for the Podestà. Nardo manages to find Sandrina by following her voice, and Ramiro then appears with footmen and torches. As the embarrassed and mismatched pairs separate, Belfiore and Sandrina find each other and lose their senses. They see themselves as the Greek gods Medusa and Alcides, and the astonished onlookers as forest nymphs. Oblivious of their surroundings, the two begin to dance.
Still believing they are gods from classical Greece, Sandrina and Belfiore pursue Nardo until he distracts them by pointing at the sky ("Mirate che contrasto"). They are entranced, and Nardo is able to make his escape. Sandrina and Belfiore leave, and Arminda and Ramiro enter with a harried Don Anchise. Arminda begs her uncle for permission to marry the Count, and Ramiro demands that the Podestà order Arminda to marry him. Don Anchise becomes confused and tells them to both do what they want, as long as they leave him alone ("Mio Padrone, io dir volevo"). After scorning Ramiro's affections yet again, Arminda leaves. Alone, Ramiro furiously swears he will never love another and that he'll die in misery, far from Arminda ("Va pure ad altri in braccio").
No longer delusional, the Count and Sandrina awaken after having slept a discreet distance from one another ("Dove mai son?"). Belfiore makes a final appeal, to which Sandrina admits she is Violante but claims that she loves him no more. The Count is saddened but agrees to leave her. They begin to part, but falter in a matter of minutes and fall into each other's arms ("Tu mi lasci?"). Arminda returns to Ramiro, and Serpetta gives way to Nardo's suit. Left alone, the Podestà accepts his fate philosophically. Perhaps, he says, he will find another Sandrina (Finale: "Viva pur la giardiniera").
Il re pastore, K. 208
00:00 - 1. Overture
02:54 - 2. Introduzione: Intendo amico rio [Aminta]
05:26 - 3. Recitativo: Bella Elisa? idol mio? [Aminta, Elisa]
07:43 - 4. No. 2 Aria: Alla selva, al prato, al fonte [Elisa]
13:29 - 5. Recitativo: Ecco il pastor [Agenore, Alessandro, Aminta]
15:18 - 6. Recitativo accompagnato: Ditelo voi pastori [Aminta]
17:44 - 7. No. 3 Aria: Aer tranquillo e di sereni [Aminta]
24:16 - 8. Recitativo: Or che dici Alessandro? [Agenore, Alessandro]
25:32 - 9. No. 4 Aria: Si spande al sole in faccia [Alessandro]
30:17 - 10. Recitativo: Agenore? T'arresta [Tamiri, Agenore]
31:54 - 11. No. 5 Aria: Per me rispondete [Agenore]
35:20 - 12. Recitativo: No, voi non siete, o Dei [Tamiri]
36:03 - 13. No. 6 Aria: Di tante sue procelle [Tamiri]
40:38 - 14. Recitativo: Oh lieto giorno! [Elisa, Aminta, Agenore]
42:50 - 15. Recitativo: Elisa! Aminta! È sogno? [Aminta, Elisa]
43:29 - 16. Recitativo accompagnato: Che? m'affretti a lasciarti [Aminta, Elisa]
47:06 - 17. No. 7 Duetto: Vanne, vanne a regnar ben mio [Elisa, Aminta]
53:28 - 18. Recitativo: Questa del campo greco è la tenda maggior [Elisa, Agenore]
55:03 - 19. No. 8 Aria: Barbaro! oh Dio mi vedi [Elisa]
1:01:08 - 20. Recitativo: Nel gran cor d'Alessandro [Agenore, Aminta, Alessandro]
1:05:34 - 21. No. 9 Aria: Se vincendo vi rendo felici [Alessandro]
1:12:00 - 22. Recitativo: Oimè! declina il sol [Aminta, Agenore]
1:13:27 - 23. No. 10 Rondo: L'amerò, sarò costante [Aminta]
1:21:30 - 24. Recitativo: Uscite, alfine uscite [Agenore, Elisa, Tamiri]
1:23:41 - 25. No. 11 Aria: Se tu di me fai dono [Tamiri]
1:29:13 - 26. Recitativo: Misero cor! [Agenore]
1:29:38 - 27. No. 12 Aria: Sol può dir come si trova [Agenore]
1:32:45 - 28. No. 13 Aria: Voi che fausti ognor donate [Alessandro]
1:37:12 - 29. Recitativo: Olà! che più si tarda? [Alessandro, Tamiri, Agenore, Elisa, Aminta]
1:40:54 - 30. No. 14 Coro: Viva, viva l'invitto duce [Elisa, Tamiri, Aminta, Agenore, Alessandro]
Il re pastore
Il re pastore (The Shepherd King) is an opera, K. 208, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Metastasio, edited by Giambattista Varesco. It is an opera seria. The opera was first performed on 23 April 1775 in Salzburg, at the Palace of the Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo.
In 1775 the opera was commissioned for a visit by the Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa, to Salzburg. Mozart spent six weeks working on the opera. It consists of two acts and runs for approximately 107 minutes.
Metastasio wrote the libretto in 1751, basing it on a work by Torquato Tasso called Aminta. The libretto was picked up when Mozart (just 19 at the time) and his father saw a performance of it set to music composed by Felice Giardini – Mozart's version, however was two acts rather than Giardini's three, and has a few substantial changes. Each act lasts for around an hour in performance. The Salzburg court chaplain Varesco was largely responsible for this editing of Metastasio's libretto.
It is often referred to not as an opera, but as a serenata, a type of dramatic cantata. The appearance of a quartet of lovers (Aminta and Elisa, Agenore and Tamiri) of somewhat dubious fidelity automatically puts a modern audience in mind of Così fan tutte. The principal psychological theme of the opera is, however, the demands of love against the demands of kingship, as Aminta, the shepherd-king, tussles with his conscience, and in this Il re pastore is closer in theme to Idomeneo than any other of Mozart's operas. Indeed, Idomeneo was the next completed opera that Mozart wrote after Il re pastore, after his six-year-long break from the stage. Furthermore, the theme of qualities for kingship appears in another opera, La clemenza di Tito, his last one.
The king of Macedonia, Alessandro, has overthrown Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, but aims to find the rightful king.
In a meadow. The city of Sidon can be seen from a distance.
Elisa is with her lover Aminta, the shepherd. She assures him that the war between King Alessandro and Stratone, the tyrant of Sidon, will not affect their love for each other. Having deposed Stratone, Alessandro searches for the rightful heir to Sidon. He thinks that Aminta is the rightful heir. He comes to Aminta in disguise and offers him to take him to Alessandro. Aminta wants to remain a shepherd. Meantime, Agenore encounters his beloved Tamiri, daughter of Stratone. Tamiri is comforted to learn that Agenore still loves her.
Elisa gets permission from her father to marry Aminta. Aminta tells Elisa that he is the rightful heir to the throne and that his father was driven out by Stratone when he was a baby. Aminta promises to return to Elisa after claiming his throne. Aminta loves Elisa but Alessandro suggests that when Aminta is hailed king, royal duties take precedence over love. Alessandro suggests that Tamiri marry Aminta in order to ascend her father's throne. Aminta disagrees.
Elisa is prevented by Agenore from seeing Aminta. He also discourages Aminta from pursuing her. Alessandro tells Aminta to dress like a king so he can be presented to his subjects. He also decides that Tamiri marry Aminta. Aminta is distraught. Agenore is upset. He breaks the news to Elisa. Tamiri does not want to marry Aminta. Agenore, too, is tormented by the planned marriage. Tamiri tells Alessandro that she and Agenore are in love. The women throw themselves onto Alessandro's mercy. Elisa begs him to give her back Aminta who declares his love for Elisa ("L'amerò, sarò costante" / I shall love her, I shall be constant). Realizing the potential injustice he was about to inflict, Alessandro tells Aminta to marry Elisa and Tamiri to marry Agenore. Aminta is crowned king of Sidon.
KV 344 (336b) - Zaïde
- Lied I,1 (Sklave) Brüder, lasst uns lustig sein (0:00)
- Aria I,3 (Zaïde) Ruhe sanft, mein holdes Leben (1:00)
- Aria I,3 (Gomatz) Rase, Schicksal, wüte immer (6:44)
- Duo I,3 (Zaïde, Gomatz) Meine Seele hüpft vor Freuden (10:45)
- Aria I,4 (Gomatz) Herr und Freund! (12:55)
- Aria I,5 (Allazim) Nur mutig, mein Herze (16:42)
- Trio I,6 (Zaïde, Gomatz, Allazim) O selige Wonne! (20:38)
- Aria II,2 (Soliman) Der stolze Löw' (26:54)
- Aria II,3 (Osmin) Wer hungrig bei der Tafel sitzt (31:58)
- Aria II,4 (Soliman) Ich bin so bös' als gut (35:05)
- Aria II,5 (Zaïde) Trostlos schluchzet Philomele (40:45)
- Aria II,6 (Zaïde) Tiger! wetze nur die Klauen (47:27)
- Aria II,7 (Allazim) Ihr Mächtigen seht ungerührt (52:10)
- Quartet II,8 (Gomatz, Allazim, Soliman, Zaïde) Freundin! stille deine Tränen (56:32)
Zaide (originally, Das Serail) is an unfinished German-language opera, K. 344, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780.
Emperor Joseph II, in 1778, was in the process of setting up an opera company for the purpose of performing German opera. One condition required of the composer to join this company was that he should write a comic opera. At Salzburg in 1779 Mozart began work on a new opera (now known as Zaide although Mozart did not give it such a title). It contains spoken dialogue, which also classifies it as a Singspiel (literally, "singing play"). Only the arias and ensembles from the first two acts were composed. Missing are an overture and third act.
It was popular at the time for operas to depict the rescue of enslaved Westerners from Muslim courts, since Muslim pirates were preying on Mediterranean shipping, particularly to obtain slaves for various purposes. This story portrays Zaide's effort to save her beloved, Gomatz.
Zaide falls in love with Gomatz, a slave, which strikes up jealousy and rage in the Sultan, who happens to also admire her. After capture she chooses a free life with Gomatz rather than a good life with the Sultan. Allazim encourages the sultan to consider Gomatz as a man, not as a slave. The final surviving quartet suggests Zaide and Gomatz are sentenced to punishment or execution. This is where Mozart's manuscript breaks off.
There are similarities with Voltaire's play Zaïre (Zara) in which Zaïre, a Christian slave who had been captured as a baby falls in love with Osman, the Sultan of Jerusalem. Osman wrongly believes Zaïre and another Christian slave Nerestan (Gomatz in Mozart's opera) are lovers and kills Zaïre in a jealous rage and then kills himself. The elderly Lusignan, a prisoner of the Sultan (paralleled in the character Allazim) recognizes Zara and Nerestan as his children as she escorts him to safety. From the surviving arias we can deduce a few differences between Voltaire's play and Mozart's opera. By Act II of the opera Zaide, Gomatz, and possibly Allazim actually escape, only to be captured once more. In the opera there is no evidence that Mozart intended to cast Zaide, Gomatz and Allazim as a reunited family. Indeed, the original ending of Voltaire's play may have been too serious for contemporary tastes and may have been a reason for Mozart's leaving the project incomplete.
KV 366 - Idomeneo, re di Creta
Title pages (Italian and German) from the original libretto
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Aria I,1 (Ilia) Padre, germani, addio! (4:29)
- Aria I,2 (Idamante) Non ho colpa, e mi condanni (7:58)
- Coro I,3 (Troiani) Godiam la pace (13:12)
- Aria I,6 (Elettra) Tutte nel cor vi sento (15:17)
- Coro I,7 (Marinari) Pietà Numi, pietà! (18:32)
- Aria I,9 (Idomeneo) Vedrommi intorno (19:53)
- Aria I,10 (Idamante) Il padre adorato (23:57)
- Marcia I,11 (KV 206) (26:42)
- Coro I,11 (Popoli) Nettuno s'onori (30:38)
- Aria II,1 (Arbace) Se il tuo duol se il mio desio (35:49)
- Aria II,2 (Ilia) Se il padre perdei (40:22)
- Aria II,3 (Idomeneo) Fuor del mar ho un mar in seno (46:17)
- Aria II,4 (Elettra) Idol mio, se ritroso (52:26)
- Rec. II,4 (Elettra) Odo da lunge armonioso & Marcia II,4 (KV 362) (57:23)
- Finale II,5 & 6 (Tutti) Placido è il mar (59:16)
- Aria III,1 (Ilia) Zeffiretti lusinghieri (1:11:59)
- Duetto III,2 (Ilia, Idamante) S'io non moro (1:17:25)
- Quartetto III,3 (Idamante, Ilia, Idomeneo, Elettra) Andrò ramingo e solo (1:20:18)
- Aria III,5 (Arbace) Se colà ne' fati è scritto (1:25:08)
- Coro III,6 (Popoli) Oh voto tremendo (1:32:42)
- Marcia III,7 (1:37:24)
- Cavatina III,7 (Idomeneo) Accogli, oh re del mar (1:38:47)
- Coro III,7 (Sacerdoti) Stupenda vittoria (1:42:14)
- Aria III,9 (Idamante) No, la morte io non pavento (1:42:29)
- Arioso III,10 (Voce) Ha vinto Amore (1:47:11)
- Aria III,10 (Elettra) D'Oreste, d'Aiace (1:50:59)
- Aria III,11 (Idomeneo) Torna la pace al core (1:54:09)
- Coro III,11 (Tutti) Scenda Amor, scenda Imeneo (2:01:21)
Idomeneo, re di Creta
Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante (Italian for Idomeneus, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian language opera seria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
The overture, in D major and common time, is in a modified sonata form in which the development is but a very short transition section connecting the exposition with the recapitulation. Other conventional hallmarks of the sonata form are apparent: the exposition modulates from the tonic (D major) to the dominant (A major), while the recapitulation is centred on the tonic. The overture concludes with a coda ending in D major chords. These chords, soft and tentative, turn out not to be a resolution of the overture in the tonic but chords in the dominant of G minor, which is the home key of the scene that immediately follows.
Island of Crete, shortly after the Trojan War. Ilia, daughter of the defeated Trojan King Priam, has been taken to Crete after the war. She loves Prince Idamante, son of Idomeneo, but hesitates to acknowledge her love. Idamante frees the Trojan prisoners in a gesture of good will. He tells Ilia, who is rejecting his love, that it is not his fault that their fathers were enemies. Trojans and Cretans together welcome the return of peace, but Electra, daughter of the Greek King Agamemnon, is jealous of Ilia and does not approve of Idamante's clemency toward the enemy prisoners. Arbace, the king's confidant, brings news that Idomeneo has been lost at sea while returning to Crete from Troy. Electra, fearing that Ilia, a Trojan, will soon become Queen of Crete, feels the furies of the underworld rise up in her heart.
Idomeneo is saved by Neptune (god of the sea) and is washed up on a Cretan beach. There he recalls the vow he made to Neptune: to sacrifice, if he should arrive safely on land, the first living creature he should meet. Idamante approaches him, but because the two have not seen each other for a long time, recognition is difficult. When Idomeneo finally realizes the youth that he must sacrifice for the sake of his vow is his own child, he orders Idamante never to seek him out again. Grief-stricken by his father's rejection, Idamante runs off. Cretan troops disembarking from Idomeneo's ship are met by their wives, and all praise Neptune.
At the king's palace, Idomeneo seeks counsel from Arbace, who says another victim could be sacrificed if Idamante were sent into exile. Idomeneo orders his son to escort Electra to her home, Argos. Idomeneo's kind words to Ilia move her to declare that since she has lost everything, he will be her father and Crete her country. As she leaves, Idomeneo realizes that sending Idamante into exile has cost Ilia her happiness as well as his own. Electra welcomes the idea of going to Argos with Idamante.
At the port of Sidon (a fictional city of Crete), Idomeneo bids his son farewell and urges him to learn the art of ruling while he is away. Before the ship can sail, however, a storm breaks out, and a sea serpent appears. Recognizing it as a messenger from Neptune, the king offers himself as atonement for having violated his vow to the god.
In the royal garden, Ilia asks the breezes to carry her love to Idamante, who appears, explaining that he must go to fight the serpent. When he says he would rather die than suffer the torments of his rejected love, Ilia confesses her love. They are surprised by Electra and Idomeneo. When Idamante asks his father why he sends him away, Idomeneo can only reply that the youth must leave. Ilia asks for consolation from Electra, who is preoccupied with revenge. Arbace comes with news that the people, led by the High Priest of Neptune, are clamoring for Idomeneo. The High Priest tells the king of the destruction caused by Neptune's monster, urging Idomeneo to reveal the name of the person whose sacrifice is demanded by the god. When the king confesses that his own son is the victim, the populace is horrified.
Outside the temple, the king and High Priest join Neptune's priests in prayer that the god may be appeased. Arbace brings news that Idamante has killed the monster. As Idomeneo fears new reprisals from Neptune, Idamante enters in sacrificial robes, saying he understands his father's torment and is ready to die. After an agonizing farewell, Idomeneo is about to sacrifice his son when Ilia intervenes, offering her own life instead. The Voice of Neptune is heard. Idomeneo must yield the throne to Ilia and Idamante. Everyone is relieved except Electra, who longs for her own death. Idomeneo presents Idamante and his bride as the new rulers. The people call upon the god of love and marriage to bless the royal pair and bring peace.
KV 384 - Die Entführung aus dem Serail
- Ouvertüre (0:00)
- Arie (Belmonte) Hier soll ich dich denn sehen, Kontanze! (4:15)
- Duett (Osmin, Belmonte) Wer ein Liebchen hat gefunden (7:11)
- Arie (Osmin) Solche hergelauf'nen Laffen (13:46)
- Arie (Belmonte) Konstanze, dich wiederzusehen, dich! (18:47)
- Marsch (24:04)
- Chor (Janitscharen) Singt dem großen Bassa Lieder (25:58)
- Arie (Konstanze) Ach, ich liebte, war so glücklich (27:35)
- Terzett (Osmin, Belmonte, Konstanze) Marsch! Marsch! Marsch! (32:44)
- Arie (Blonde) Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln (35:09)
- Duett (Osmin, Blonde) Ich gehe, doch rate ich dir (39:40)
- Arie (Konstanze) Traurigkeit ward mir zum Lose (43:14)
- Arie (Konstanze) Martern aller Arten (50:40)
- Arie (Blonde) Welche Wonne, welche Lust (1:00:13)
- Arie (Pedrillo) Frisch zum Kampfe (1:03:26)
- Duett (Pedrillo, Osmin) Vivat Bacchus! (1:06:25)
- Arie (Belmonte) Wenn der Freude Tränen fließen (1:08:26)
- Quartett (Konstanze, Belmonte, Pedrillo, Blonde) Ach, Belmonte, ach (1:15:26)
- Arie (Belmonte) Ich baue ganz auf deine Stärke (1:26:13)
- Romanze (Pedrillo) In Mohrenland gefangen war ein Mädel hübsch und fein (1:32:58)
- Arie (Osmin) O, wie will ich triumphieren (1:35:23)
- Rezitativ & Duett (Belmonte, Konstanze) Welch ein Geschick (1:38:39)
- Vaudeville & Chor (Alle) Nie werd' ich solche Huld verkennen (1:47:55)
An illustration of the women's quarters in a Seraglio, John Frederick Lewis, 1873
Die Entführung aus dem Serail
Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The German libretto is by Christoph Friedrich Bretzner with adaptations by Gottlieb Stephanie.
Place: the country house of the Pasha (German "Bassa"), in Turkey
Time: 16th century
After a lively overture, Belmonte enters, looking for his betrothed, Konstanze, who with her English servant Blonde has fallen into the hands of pirates and been sold to Pasha Selim (Aria: "Hier soll ich dich denn sehen" – "Here surely I must find her"). Osmin, the Pasha's bad-tempered servant, comes to pluck figs in the garden and contemptuously ignores Belmonte's questions (Aria: "Wer ein Liebchen hat gefunden" – "You may think, you've found a maiden"). Belmonte tries to obtain news of his servant, Pedrillo, who has been captured with the women and is serving as a servant in the Pasha's palace. Osmin replies with insults and abuse (Duet: "Verwünscht seist du samt deinem Liede!" – "The devil take you and your song, sir"). Belmonte leaves in disgust. Pedrillo enters and Osmin rages at him, vowing to get him tortured and killed in many different ways (Aria: "Solche hergelaufne Laffen" – "These young men who go a-spying"). Osmin leaves and Belmonte enters and happily reunites with Pedrillo. Together they resolve to rescue Konstanze and Pedrillo's fiancée, Blonde, who is Konstanze's servant (Aria: "Konstanze, Konstanze, dich wiederzusehen … O wie ängstlich" – "Konstanze, Konstanze, to see thee again … Oh what trembling").
Accompanied by a chorus of Janissaries ("Singt dem großen Bassa Lieder" – "Sing to the mighty Pasha Selim"), Pasha Selim appears with Konstanze, for whose love he strives in vain (Aria of Konstanze: "Ach ich liebte" – "How I loved him"). Pedrillo tricks the Pasha into hiring Belmonte as an architect. When Belmonte and Pedrillo try to enter the palace, Osmin bars their way, but they hurry past him anyway (Terzett: "Marsch! Marsch! Marsch! Trollt euch fort!" – "March! March! March! Clear off!").
The Pasha has given Blonde to Osmin, to be his slave; however, she defiantly repulses her new master's rough lovemaking attempts (Aria: "Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln" – "With smiles and kind caresses"), threatens to scratch out his eyes, and chases him out of the room (Duet: "Ich gehe, doch rate ich dir" – "I'm going, but mark what I say"). Konstanze enters and greets Blonde in distress (Aria: "Welcher Wechsel herrscht in meiner Seele … Traurigkeit ward mir zum Lose" – "Oh what sorrow overwhelms my spirit … Endless grief tortures my spirit"). The Pasha enters, demands her love, and threatens to use force, but she resolutely rejects him. (Aria: "Martern aller Arten" – "Tortures unrelenting.") Left alone, he muses on her determination to remain chaste, which increases his desire for her.
Pedrillo informs Blonde (who is his sweetheart) that Belmonte has come and is planning to rescue them. Blonde is filled with joy. (Aria: "Welche Wonne, welche Lust" – "Oh, the happy, happy day"). After singing a short ditty to boost his courage (Aria: "Frisch zum Kampfe" – "Now Pedrillo, now for battle!"), Pedrillo invites Osmin to drink (Duet: "Vivat Bacchus! Bacchus lebe!" – "Here's to Bacchus, long live Bacchus"). Despite his religious prohibition against alcoholic beverages, Osmin drinks heavily and falls asleep. Konstanze joins Belmonte who declares his love (Aria: ""Wenn der Freude Tränen fließen" – "When tears of joy flow"). The two couples reunite (Quartet, Belmonte, Konstanze, Pedrillo, Blonde: "Ach Belmonte! Ach, mein Leben" – "Ah, Belmonte, ah my dear one!"). After their initial expressions of love and joy, Belmonte and Pedrillo both question anxiously whether their respective fiancees have remained faithful during their forced separation; to their delight the women respond with indignation and dismay, and Blonde slaps Pedrillo's face. The two men apologize for their failure of confidence, the women forgive them for the offensive questions.
Belmonte and Pedrillo come to the garden with ladders (Aria, Belmonte: "Ich baue ganz auf deine Stärke" – "Love, only love, can now direct me"). Pedrillo gets the attention of the women by singing a ballad about a rescue similar to the one he is planning (Romanze, Pedrillo: "In Mohrenland gefangen war" – "In Moorish lands a maiden fair"). However, Osmin enters, sees the ladders, and rouses the castle. Osmin exults in the prospect of seeing them all hanged (Aria: "O, wie will ich triumphieren" – "My triumphant hour's approaching"). Belmonte pleads for their lives and tells Pasha Selim that his father is a Spanish Grandee and Governor of Oran, named Lostados, and will pay a generous ransom. Unfortunately, Pasha Selim and Lostados are long-standing enemies. The Pasha rejoices in the opportunity to subject his enemy's son to a horrible death. He leaves Belmonte and Konstanze to bid each other a last farewell; they lovingly assure each other that being tortured to death will be a pleasure, so long as they get tortured to death together (Duet: "Welch ein Geschick! O Qual der Seele.... Weh, du soltest für mich sterben" – "What dreadful fate conspires against us.... Woe, you will die because of me"). However, the Pasha decides that he can make a better point against Lostados by showing mercy and releasing Belmonte and his friends. All are set at liberty – much to the dismay of Osmin, who would prefer to see them all brutally executed (Finale: "Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen" – "Your noble mercy passes measure").
KV 422 - L'oca del Cairo
- Duetto I,3 (Auretta, Chichibio) Cosi si fa, due paroline (0:00)
- Aria I,6 (Auretta) Se fosse qui nascoso (3:57)
- Aria I,6 (Chichibio) Ogni momento (6:58)
- Aria e terzetto I,8 (Don Pippo, Auretta, Chichibio) Siano pronte (7:59)
- Aria I,11 (Biondello) Che parli, che dica (13:01)
- Quartetto I,11 (Celidora, Biondello, Lavina, Calandrino) S'oggi, oh dei (15:37)
- Duetto II, (Chichibio, Auretta) Ho un pensiero nel (22:12)
- Finale I,15 (Tutti) Su via putti, presto, presto! (25:10)
L'oca del Cairo
L'oca del Cairo (The Goose of Cairo or The Cairo Goose, K. 422) is an incomplete Italian opera buffa in three acts, begun by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in July 1783 but abandoned in October. The complete libretto by Giovanni Battista Varesco remains. Mozart composed seven of the ten numbers of the first act, plus some recitative, as well a sketch of the finale (lost); the extant music amounts to about 45 minutes.
Mozart's correspondence shows he wanted to write a comic opera to a new text for the Italian company in Vienna. He had only just met Lorenzo Da Ponte, who would later pen the libretti for several of Mozart's most successful operas, but Da Ponte was not available, so Mozart turned to Varesco, librettist for Mozart's earlier opera Idomeneo. Mozart's urgent need of a poet is attested by his willingness to work with someone, who in his opinion had "not the slightest knowledge or experience of the theatre". Eventually Mozart realized the hopelessness of the project and abandoned Varesco's libretto after six months because of its silly ending, a farcical travesty of the Trojan Horse legend.
Several versions have been prepared by adapting other music. The first performance (in concert) was in Frankfurt in April 1860 with numbers taken from Lo sposo deluso and some concert arias.
The first stage performance was given on 6 June 1867 in Paris at the Théâtre des Fantaisies-Parisiennes in a 2-act French adaptation, L'oie du Caire, by the Belgian librettist Victor Wilder, who added a new conclusion, and a musical arrangement by the conductor, Charles Constantin, who orchestrated the music and added other pieces by Mozart to complete it.
Don Pippo, a Spanish Marquess, keeps his only daughter Celidora locked up in his tower. She is betrothed to Count Lionetto, but her true love is Biondello, a wealthy gentleman. Biondello makes a bet with the Marquis that if he can rescue Celidora from the tower within a year he wins her hand in marriage. He succeeds by having himself smuggled into the tower garden inside a large mechanical goose.
KV 430 (424a/Anh109c) - Lo sposo deluso
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Quartetto I,1 (Pulcherio, Bocconio, Bettina, Astrubale) Ah che ridere (4:58)
- Aria I,3 (Eugenia) Nacqui all'aura trionfale (10:03)
- Aria I,4 (Pulcherio) Dove mai trovar quel ciglio? (13:49)
- Terzetto I,9 (Bocconio, Astrubale, Eugenia) Che accidenti (17:52)
Lo sposo deluso
Lo sposo deluso, ossia La rivalità di tre donne per un solo amante (The Deluded Bridegroom, or The Rivalry of Three Women for One Lover) is a two-act opera buffa, K. 430, composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart between 1783 and 1784. However, the opera was never completed and only a 20-minute fragment from act 1 exists.
Mozart had originally planned to have the opera performed by a seven-member Italian troupe in Vienna. Although it was once thought that Lorenzo Da Ponte might have been the author of the libretto, scholarship by Alessandra Campana has established that the libretto was written by an unknown Italian poet for Domenico Cimarosa's opera Le donne rivali, which he composed for the Rome carnival season of 1780. According to Neal Zaslaw, Cimarosa's librettist may have been Giuseppe Petrosellini, the house poet of the Teatro Valle where Le donne rivali premiered. (Petrosellini was also the probable librettist of Mozart's earlier opera La finta giardiniera). For Lo sposo deluso, Mozart had the characters in Le donne rivali expanded from five to seven, renamed the original five, and established the cast of singers for whom he would be writing. It is unclear why he abandoned the work, although Zaslaw has proposed that it was a combination of the difficulties presented by re-writing and adapting the libretto for the Viennese audience and the fact that in 1785, Da Ponte had finally come through with the libretto for Le nozze di Figaro.
The first recorded performance of material from Lo sposo deluso dates from 15 November 1797, six years after Mozart's death. Mozart's widow, Constanze, arranged for the overture and opening quartet to be performed at the Estates Theatre in Prague during a concert highlighting the musical debut of their youngest son, Franz Xavier Mozart.
In 1991, the 200th anniversary of Mozart's death, Opera North premièred The Jewel Box, a pasticcio opera devised by Paul Griffiths. This used the existing pieces from Lo sposo deluso and L'oca del Cairo as well as arias written by Mozart for insertion into operas by Anfossi, Piccini and Cimarosa, among others.
KV 486 - Der Schauspieldirektor (The Impresario)
- Ouvertüre (0:00)
- Arietta (Mme Herz) Da schlägt die Abschiedstunde (3:51)
- Rondo (Mlle Silberklang) Bester Jüngling mit Entzükken (7:28)
- Terzett (Silberklang, Herz, Vogelsang) Ich bin die erste Sängerin (10:22)
- Vaudeville (Alle) Jeder Künstler strebt nach Ehre (16:42)
Der Schauspieldirektor (The Impresario), K. 486, is a comic singspiel by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, set to a German libretto by Gottlieb Stephanie, an Austrian Schauspieldirektor. Originally, it was written because of "the imperial command" of the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II who had invited 80 guests to a private luncheon. It is regarded as "a parody on the vanity of singers", who argue over status and pay.
Mozart, who describes it as "comedy with music" wrote it as his entry in a musical competition which was given a private performance hosted on 7 February 1786 by Joseph II at the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. This competition pitted a German singspiel, presented at one end of the room, against a competing Italian opera, the Italian entry being Antonio Salieri's opera buffa, Prima la musica e poi le parole (First the Music, then the Words), which was then given at the other end of the room. The premiere was followed by the first of three public performances given four days later at the Kärntnertor Theater, Vienna, on 11 February.
Frank, the impresario (along with the buffo singer, Buff, who assists him) audition two actresses to be part of his new theatrical company. While both are hired, they then argue over who will get the prime role and who will be paid the most. To illustrate their strengths, each sings a striking aria to back her claim (Herz: "Da schlägt die Abschiedsstunde", Silberklang: "Bester Jüngling"). An agreement is reached when the tenor, Vogelsang, intervenes, in what Rushton describes as a hilarious trio, Ich bin die erste Sängerin ("I am the prima donna") compromise is agreed to with each receiving "large salaries and star billing". The work ended with the quartet "Jeder Künstler strebt nach Ehre" (Every artist strives for glory).
KV 492 - Le nozze di Figaro
(with alternative arias)
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Duettino I,1 (Figaro, Susanna) Cinque...dieci...venti...trenta (3:47)
- Duettino I,1 (Figaro, Susanna) Se a caso madama (6:25)
- Cavatina I,2 (Figaro) Se vuol ballare (8:59)
- Aria I,3 (Bartolo) La vendetta, oh, la vendetta (11:06)
- Duetto I,4 (Marcellina, Susanna) Via, resti servita (14:17)
- Aria I,5 (Cherubino) Non so più cosa son, cosa faccio (16:38)
- Terzetto I,7 (Conte, Basilio, Susanna) Cosa sento! tosto andate (19:10)
- Coro I,8 (Popolo) Giovani liete (24:33)
- Aria I,8 (Figaro) Non più andrai, farfallone amoroso (25:42)
- Cavatina II,1 (Contessa) Porgi, amor (29:14)
- Arietta II,3 (Cherubino) Voi che sapete (32:18)
- Aria II,3 (Susanna) Venite...inginocchiatevi (34:51)
- Terzetto II,6 (Conte, Contessa, Susanna) Susanna, or via, sortite (37:22)
- Duetto (Susanna, Cherubino) Aprite, presto, aprite (40:04)
- Finale II,8 Esci, ormai, garzon malnato (41:06)
- Finale II,10 Signori, di fuori (49:00)
- Finale II,11 Ah! signor...signor (52:07)
- Finale II,12 Voi signor, che giusto siete (57:49)
- Duetto III,2 (Conte, Susanna) Crudel! perchè finora (1:01:31)
- Acc. ed aria III,4 (Conte) Hai già vinta...Vedro mentr'io (1:04:03)
- Sestetto III,5 Riconosci in questo ampless (1:08:34)
- Acc. ed aria III,8 (Contessa) E Susanna...Dove sono (1:13:28)
- Duettino III,10 (Contessa, Susanna) Sull'aria (1:19:11)
- Coro III,11 (Giovinette) Ricevete, o padroncina (1:21:33)
- Finale III,13 Ecco la marcia (1:22:44)
- Cavatina IV,1 (Barbarina) L'ho perduta me meschina! (1:28:41)
- Aria IV,4 (Marcellina) Il capro e la carpetta (1:30:02)
- Aria IV,7 (Basilio) In quegli anni in cui val poco (1:33:26)
- Aria IV,8 (Figaro) Aprite un po' quegl'occhi (1:37:17)
- Acc. ed aria IV,10 (Susanna) Giunse alfin...Deh vieni (1:40:17)
- Finale IV,11 Pian pianin le andrò più presso (1:43:56)
- Finale IV,13 Tutto è tranquillo e placido (1:49:04)
- Finale IV,15 Gente, gente, all'armi, all'armi (1:53:39)
- Alternative aria: Cavatina I,4 (Marcellina) Signora mia garbata (1:58:30)
- Alternative scene: Acc. ed aria III,4 (Conte) Hai già vinta...Vedrò mentr'io (1:59:37)
- Alternative scene: Acc. ed aria III,8 (Contessa) E Susanna...Dove sono (2:04:33)
- Alternative scene: Acc. ed aria I,8 (Figaro) Ehi, Sor paggio - Non più andrai (2:09:42)
Lorenzo Da Ponte wrote a preface to the first published version of the libretto, in which he boldly claimed that he and Mozart had created a new form of music drama:
In spite ... of every effort ... to be brief, the opera will not be one of the shortest to have appeared on our stage, for which we hope sufficient excuse will be found in the variety of threads from which the action of this play [i.e. Beaumarchais's] is woven, the vastness and grandeur of the same, the multiplicity of the musical numbers that had to be made in order not to leave the actors too long unemployed, to diminish the vexation and monotony of long recitatives, and to express with varied colours the various emotions that occur, but above all in our desire to offer as it were a new kind of spectacle to a public of so refined a taste and understanding.
Charles Rosen (in The Classical Style) proposes to take Da Ponte's words quite seriously, noting the "richness of the ensemble writing", which carries forward the action in a far more dramatic way than recitatives would. Rosen also suggests that the musical language of the classical style was adapted by Mozart to convey the drama: many sections of the opera musically resemble sonata form; by movement through a sequence of keys, they build up and resolve musical tension, providing a natural musical reflection of the drama. As Rosen writes:
The synthesis of accelerating complexity and symmetrical resolution which was at the heart of Mozart's style enabled him to find a musical equivalent for the great stage works which were his dramatic models. The Marriage of Figaro in Mozart's version is the dramatic equal, and in many respects the superior, of Beaumarchais's work.
Le nozze di Figaro
The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) in four acts composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with an Italian libretto written by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna on 1 May 1786. The opera's libretto is based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, La folle journée, ou le Mariage de Figaro ("The Mad Day, or The Marriage of Figaro"), which was first performed in 1784.
The Marriage of Figaro continues the plot of The Barber of Seville several years later, and recounts a single "day of madness" (la folle journée) in the palace of Count Almaviva near Seville, Spain. Rosina is now the Countess; Dr. Bartolo is seeking revenge against Figaro for thwarting his plans to marry Rosina himself; and Count Almaviva has degenerated from the romantic youth of Barber into a scheming, bullying, skirt-chasing baritone. Having gratefully given Figaro a job as head of his servant-staff, he is now persistently trying to exercise his droit du seigneur – his right to bed a servant girl on her wedding night – with Figaro's bride-to-be, Susanna, who is the Countess's maid. He keeps finding excuses to delay the civil part of the wedding of his two servants, which is arranged for this very day. Figaro, Susanna, and the Countess conspire to embarrass the Count and expose his scheming. He retaliates by trying to compel Figaro legally to marry a woman old enough to be his mother, but it turns out at the last minute that she really is his mother. Through Figaro's and Susanna's clever manipulations, the Count's love for his Countess is finally restored.
Place: Count Almaviva's estate, Aguas-Frescas, three leagues outside Seville, Spain.
The overture is in the key of D major; the tempo marking is presto; i.e. very fast. The work is well known and often played independently as a concert piece.
A partly furnished room, with a chair in the centre.
Figaro happily measures the space where the bridal bed will fit while Susanna tries on her wedding bonnet in front of a mirror (in the present day, a more traditional French floral wreath or a modern veil are often substituted, often in combination with a bonnet, so as to accommodate what Susanna happily describes as her wedding cappellino). (Duet: Cinque, dieci, venti – "Five, ten, twenty"). Figaro is quite pleased with their new room; Susanna far less so (Duettino: Se a caso madama la notte ti chiama – "If the Countess should call you during the night"). She is bothered by its proximity to the Count's chambers: it seems he has been making advances toward her and plans on exercising his droit du seigneur, the purported feudal right of a lord to bed a servant girl on her wedding night before her husband can sleep with her. The Count had the right abolished when he married Rosina, but he now wants to reinstate it. Figaro is livid and plans to outwit the Count (Cavatina: Se vuol ballare signor contino – "If you want to dance, sir count").
Figaro departs, and Dr. Bartolo arrives with Marcellina, his old housekeeper. Marcellina has hired Bartolo as legal counsel, since Figaro had once promised to marry her if he should default on a loan she had made to him, and she intends to enforce that promise. Bartolo, still irked at Figaro for having facilitated the union of the Count and Rosina (in The Barber of Seville), promises, in comical lawyer-speak, to help Marcellina (aria: La vendetta – "Vengeance").
Bartolo departs, Susanna returns, and Marcellina and Susanna share an exchange of very politely delivered sarcastic insults (duet: Via resti servita, madama brillante – "After you, brilliant madam"). Susanna triumphs in the exchange by congratulating her rival on her impressive age. The older woman departs in a fury.
Cherubino then arrives and, after describing his emerging infatuation with all women, particularly with his "beautiful godmother" the Countess (aria: Non so più cosa son – "I don't know anymore what I am"), asks for Susanna's aid with the Count. It seems the Count is angry with Cherubino's amorous ways, having discovered him with the gardener's daughter, Barbarina, and plans to punish him. Cherubino wants Susanna to ask the Countess to intercede on his behalf. When the Count appears, Cherubino hides behind a chair, not wanting to be seen alone with Susanna. The Count uses the opportunity of finding Susanna alone to step up his demands for favours from her, including financial inducements to sell herself to him. As Basilio, the music teacher, arrives, the Count, not wanting to be caught alone with Susanna, hides behind the chair. Cherubino leaves that hiding place just in time, and jumps onto the chair while Susanna scrambles to cover him with a dress.
When Basilio starts to gossip about Cherubino's obvious attraction to the Countess, the Count angrily leaps from his hiding place (terzetto: Cosa sento! – "What do I hear!"). He disparages the "absent" page's incessant flirting and describes how he caught him with Barbarina under the kitchen table. As he lifts the dress from the chair to illustrate how he lifted the tablecloth to expose Cherubino, he finds ... the self same Cherubino! The count is furious, but is reminded that the page overheard the Count's advances on Susanna, something that the Count wants to keep from the Countess. The young man is ultimately saved from punishment by the entrance of the peasants of the Count's estate, a preemptive attempt by Figaro to commit the Count to a formal gesture symbolizing his promise that Susanna would enter into the marriage unsullied. The Count evades Figaro's plan by postponing the gesture. The Count says that he forgives Cherubino, but he dispatches him to his own regiment in Seville for army duty, effective immediately. Figaro gives Cherubino mocking advice about his new, harsh, military life from which all luxury, and especially women, will be totally excluded (aria: Non più andrai – "No more gallivanting").
A handsome room with an alcove, a dressing room on the left, a door in the background (leading to the servants' quarters) and a window at the side.
The Countess laments her husband's infidelity (aria: Porgi, amor, qualche ristoro – "Grant, love, some comfort"). Susanna comes in to prepare the Countess for the day. She responds to the Countess's questions by telling her that the Count is not trying to seduce her; he is merely offering her a monetary contract in return for her affection. Figaro enters and explains his plan to distract the Count with anonymous letters warning him of adulterers. He has already sent one to the Count (via Basilio) that indicates that the Countess has a rendezvous of her own that evening. They hope that the Count will be too busy looking for imaginary adulterers to interfere with Figaro and Susanna's wedding. Figaro additionally advises the Countess to keep Cherubino around. She should dress him up as a girl and lure the Count into an illicit rendezvous where he can be caught red-handed. Figaro leaves.
Cherubino arrives, sent in by Figaro and eager to co-operate. Susanna urges him to sing the song he wrote for the Countess (aria: Voi che sapete che cosa è amor – "You ladies who know what love is, is it what I'm suffering from?"). After the song, the Countess, seeing Cherubino's military commission, notices that the Count was in such a hurry that he forgot to seal it with his signet ring (which would be necessary to make it an official document).
Susanna and the Countess then begin with their plan. Susanna takes off Cherubino´s cloak, and she begins to comb his hair and teach him to behave and walk like a woman (aria of Susanna: Venite, inginocchiatevi – “Come, kneel down before me”). Then she leaves the room through a door at the back to get the dress for Cherubino, taking his cloak with her.
While the Countess and Cherubino are waiting for Susanna to come back, they suddenly hear the Count arriving. Cherubino hides in the closet. The Count demands to be allowed into the room and the Countess reluctantly unlocks the door. The Count enters and hears a noise from the closet. He tries to open it, but it is locked. The Countess tells him it is only Susanna, trying on her wedding dress. At this moment, Susanna re-enters unobserved, quickly realizes what's going on, and hides behind a couch (Trio: Susanna, or via, sortite – "Susanna, come out!"). The Count shouts for her to identify herself by her voice, but the Countess orders her to be silent. Furious and suspicious, the Count leaves, with the Countess, in search of tools to force the closet door open. As they leave, he locks all the bedroom doors to prevent the intruder from escaping. Cherubino and Susanna emerge from their hiding places, and Cherubino escapes by jumping through the window into the garden. Susanna then takes Cherubino's former place in the closet, vowing to make the Count look foolish (duet: Aprite, presto, aprite – "Open the door, quickly!").
The Count and Countess return. The Countess, thinking herself trapped, desperately admits that Cherubino is hidden in the closet. The enraged Count draws his sword, promising to kill Cherubino on the spot, but when the door is opened, they both find to their astonishment only Susanna (Finale: Esci omai, garzon malnato – "Come out of there, you ill-born boy!"). The Count demands an explanation; the Countess tells him it is a practical joke, to test his trust in her. Shamed by his jealousy, the Count begs for forgiveness. When the Count presses about the anonymous letter, Susanna and the Countess reveal that the letter was written by Figaro, and then delivered by Basilio. Figaro then arrives and tries to start the wedding festivities, but the Count berates him with questions about the anonymous note. Just as the Count is starting to run out of questions, Antonio the gardener arrives, complaining that a man has jumped out of the window and broken his flowerpots. The Count immediately realizes that the jumping fugitive was Cherubino, but Figaro claims it was he himself who jumped out of the window, and claims to have injured his foot while landing. Figaro, Susanna, and the Countess attempt to discredit Antonio as a chronic drunkard whose constant inebriation makes him unreliable and prone to fantasy, but Antonio brings forward a paper which, he says, was dropped by the escaping man. The Count orders Figaro to prove he was the jumper by identifying the paper (which is, in fact, Cherubino's appointment to the army). Figaro is at a loss, but Susanna and the Countess manage to signal the correct answers, and Figaro identifies the document. His victory is, however, short-lived: Marcellina, Bartolo, and Basilio enter, bringing charges against Figaro and demanding that he honor his contract to marry Marcellina. The Count happily postpones the wedding in order to investigate the charge.
A rich hall, with two thrones, prepared for the wedding ceremony.
The Count mulls over the confusing situation. At the urging of the Countess, Susanna enters and gives a false promise to meet the Count later that night in the garden (duet: Crudel! perchè finora – "Cruel girl, why did you make me wait so long"). As Susanna leaves, the Count overhears her telling Figaro that he has already won the case. Realizing that he is being tricked (recitative and aria: Hai già vinta la causa! ... Vedrò, mentr'io sospiro – "You've already won the case!" ... "Shall I, while sighing, see"), he resolves to punish Figaro by forcing him to marry Marcellina.
Figaro's hearing follows, and the Count's judgment is that Figaro must marry Marcellina. Figaro argues that he cannot get married without his parents' permission, and that he does not know who his parents are, because he was stolen from them when he was a baby. The ensuing discussion reveals that Figaro is Rafaello, the long-lost illegitimate son of Bartolo and Marcellina. A touching scene of reconciliation occurs. During the celebrations, Susanna enters with a payment to release Figaro from his debt to Marcellina. Seeing Figaro and Marcellina in celebration together, Susanna mistakenly believes that Figaro now prefers Marcellina to her. She has a tantrum and slaps Figaro's face. Marcellina explains, and Susanna, realizing her mistake, joins the celebration. Bartolo, overcome with emotion, agrees to marry Marcellina that evening in a double wedding (sextet: Riconosci in questo amplesso – "Recognize in this embrace").
All leave, before Barbarina, Antonio's daughter, invites Cherubino back to her house so they can disguise him as a girl. The Countess, alone, ponders the loss of her happiness (aria: Dove sono i bei momenti – "Where are they, the beautiful moments"). Meanwhile, Antonio informs the Count that Cherubino is not in Seville, but in fact at his house. Susanna enters and updates her mistress regarding the plan to trap the Count. The Countess dictates a love letter for Susanna to send to the Count, which suggests that he meet her (Susanna) that night, "under the pines". The letter instructs the Count to return the pin which fastens the letter (duet: Sull'aria...che soave zeffiretto – "On the breeze... What a gentle little zephyr").
A chorus of young peasants, among them Cherubino disguised as a girl, arrives to serenade the Countess. The Count arrives with Antonio and, discovering the page, is enraged. His anger is quickly dispelled by Barbarina, who publicly recalls that he had once offered to give her anything she wants, and asks for Cherubino's hand in marriage. Thoroughly embarrassed, the Count allows Cherubino to stay.
The act closes with the double wedding, during the course of which Susanna delivers her letter to the Count (Finale: Ecco la marcia – "Here is the procession"). Figaro watches the Count prick his finger on the pin, and laughs, unaware that the love-note is an invitation for the Count to tryst with Figaro's own bride Susanna. As the curtain drops, the two newlywed couples rejoice.
The garden, with two pavilions. Night.
Following the directions in the letter, the Count has sent the pin back to Susanna, giving it to Barbarina. Unfortunately, Barbarina has lost it (aria: L'ho perduta, me meschina – "I have lost it, poor me"). Figaro and Marcellina see Barbarina, and Figaro asks her what she is doing. When he hears the pin is Susanna's, he is overcome with jealousy, especially as he recognises the pin to be the one that fastened the letter to the Count. Thinking that Susanna is meeting the Count behind his back, Figaro complains to his mother, and swears to be avenged on the Count and Susanna, and on all unfaithful wives. Marcellina urges caution, but Figaro will not listen. Figaro rushes off, and Marcellina resolves to inform Susanna of Figaro's intentions. Marcellina sings an aria lamenting that male and female wild beasts get along with each other, but rational humans can't (aria: Il capro e la capretta – "The billy-goat and the she-goat"). (This aria and Basilio's ensuing aria are usually omitted from performances due to their relative unimportance, both musically and dramatically; however, some recordings include them.)
Motivated by jealousy, Figaro tells Bartolo and Basilio to come to his aid when he gives the signal. Basilio comments on Figaro's foolishness and claims he was once as frivolous as Figaro was. He tells a tale of how he was given common sense by "Donna Flemma" ("Dame Prudence") and learned the importance of not crossing powerful people. (aria: In quegli anni – "In those years"). They exit, leaving Figaro alone. Figaro muses bitterly on the inconstancy of women (recitative and aria: Tutto è disposto ... Aprite un po' quegli occhi – "Everything is ready ... Open those eyes a little"). Susanna and the Countess arrive, each dressed in the other's clothes. Marcellina is with them, having informed Susanna of Figaro's suspicions and plans. After they discuss the plan, Marcellina and the Countess leave, and Susanna teases Figaro by singing a love song to her beloved within Figaro's hearing (aria: Deh vieni, non tardar – "Oh come, don't delay"). Figaro is hiding behind a bush and, thinking the song is for the Count, becomes increasingly jealous.
The Countess arrives in Susanna's dress. Cherubino shows up and starts teasing "Susanna" (really the Countess), endangering the plan. (Finale: Pian pianin le andrò più presso - "Softly, softly I'll approach her") Fortunately, the Count gets rid of him by striking out in the dark. His punch actually ends up hitting Figaro, but the point is made and Cherubino runs off.
The Count now begins making earnest love to "Susanna" (really the Countess), and gives her a jeweled ring. They go offstage together, where the Countess dodges him, hiding in the dark. Onstage, meanwhile, the real Susanna enters, wearing the Countess' clothes. Figaro mistakes her for the real Countess, and starts to tell her of the Count's intentions, but he suddenly recognizes his bride in disguise. He plays along with the joke by pretending to be in love with "my lady", and inviting her to make love right then and there. Susanna, fooled, loses her temper and slaps him many times. Figaro finally lets on that he has recognized Susanna's voice, and they make peace, resolving to conclude the comedy together (Pace, pace, mio dolce tesoro - "Peace, peace, my sweet treasure").
The Count, unable to find "Susanna", enters frustrated. Figaro gets his attention by loudly declaring his love for "the Countess" (really Susanna). The enraged Count calls for his people and for weapons: his servant is seducing his wife. (Ultima Scena: Gente, gente, all'armi, all'armi – "Gentlemen, to arms!") Bartolo, Basilio and Antonio enter with torches as, one by one, the Count drags out Cherubino, Barbarina, Marcellina and the "Countess" from behind the pavilion.
All beg him to forgive Figaro and the "Countess", but he loudly refuses, repeating "no" at the top of his voice, until finally the real Countess re-enters and reveals her true identity. The Count, seeing the ring he had given her, realizes that the supposed Susanna he was trying to seduce was actually his wife. Ashamed and remorseful, he kneels and pleads for forgiveness himself (Contessa perdono! – "Countess, forgive me!"). The Countess, more kind than he (Più docile io sono – "I am more mild"), forgives her husband and all are contented. The opera ends in universal celebration.
Don Giovanni, K. 527
00:00 - Overture
05:41 - No. 1 Introduzione: Notte e giorno faticar [Leporello]
07:28 - Non sperar, se non m'uccidi [Donna Anna, Don Giovanni, L]
08:54 - Lasciala, indegno! [Il Commendatore, DG, L]
11:02 - Recitativo: Leporello, ove sei? [DG, L]
11:35 - Recitativo: Ah! del padre in periglio [DA, Don Ottavio]
11:52 - No. 2 Recitativo accompagnato e duetto: Ma qual mai s'offre, oh Dei - [DA, DO]
14:59 - Fuggi, crudele, fuggi! [DA, DO]
18:45 - Recitativo: Orsù, specciati presto [DG, L]
20:26 - No. 3 Aria: Ah chi mi dice mai [Donna Elvira, DG, L]
24:02 - Recitativo: Chi è là? Stelle! che vedo! [DE, DG, L]
26:55 - No. 4 Aria: Madamina, il catalogo [L]
32:14 - Recitativo: In questa forma dunque [DE]
32:46 - No. 5 Coro: Giovinette, che fate all'amore [Zerlina, Masetto, Coro]
Max Slevogt - Francisco d'Andrade as Don Giovanni
34:05 - Recitativo: Manco male è partita [Z, DG, L, M]
36:35 - No. 6 Aria: Ho capito [M]
38:14 - Recitativo: Alfin siam liberati [Z, DG]
40:22 - No. 7 Duettino: Là ci darem la mano [DG, Z]
44:03 - Recitativo: Fermati scellerato [DE, DG, Z]
44:55 - No. 8 Aria: Ah fuggi il traditor [DE]
45:57 - Recitativo: Mi par ch'oggi il demonio [DG, DO, DA]
47:05 - Recitativo: Ah ti ritrovo [DE]
47:14 - No. 9 Quartetto: Non ti fidar, o misera [DA, DE, DO, DG]
51:26 - Recitativo: Povera sventurata! [DG]
51:53 - No. 10 Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria: Don Ottavio, son morta! [DA, DO]
55:31 - Or sai chi l'onore [DA]
58:27 - Recitativo: Come mai cerder deggio [DO]
59:02 - No. 10a Aria: Dalla sua pace [DO]
1:03:40 - Recitativo: Io deggio ad ogni patto [DG, L]
1:05:25 - No. 11 Aria: Fin ch'han dal vino [DG]
1:06:40 - Recitativo: Masetto, senti un po'! [Z, M]
1:07:50 - No. 12 Aria: Batti, batti, o bel Masetto [Z]
1:11:33 - Recitativo: Guarda un po' [Z, DG, M]
1:12:07 - No 13 Finale: Presto, presto pria ch'ei venga [M, Z]
1:13:12 - Sù, svegliatevi, da bravi! [DG, Coro]
1:14:08 - Tra quest'arbori celata [Z, DG, M]
1:16:42 - Bisogna aver coraggio [DE, DO, DA, L, DG]
1:19:02 - Protegga il giusto cielo [DA, DO, DE]
1:21:10 - Riposate, vezzose ragazze [DG, L, M, Z]
1:22:25 - Venite pur avanti [L, DG, DA, DE, DO, M, Z]
1:26:50 - Ecco il birbo che t'ha offesa... [DG, L, DO, DA, DE, Z, M]
1:28:32 - Trema, trema scellerato [Tutti]
1:30:50 - No. 14 Duetto: Eh via buffone [Don Giovanni, Leporello]
1:32:01 - Recitativo: Leporello, Signore [DG, L]
1:33:59 - No. 15 Terzetto: Ah taci, ingiusto core [Donna Elvira, DG, L]
1:39:42 - Recitativo: Amico che ti par? [DG, L]
1:40:14 - Recitativo: Eccomi a voi! [DE, DG, L]
1:41:56 - No. 16 Canzonetta: Deh vieni alla finestra [DG]
1:44:20 - Recitativo: V'è gente alla finestra [DG] - Non ci stanchiamo [DG, Masetto]
1:45:32 - No. 17 Aria: Metà di voi quà vadano [DG]
1:48:30 - Recitativo: Zitto! Lascia ch'io senta [DG, M]
1:49:16 - Recitativo: Ah ahi! la testa mia [M, Zerlina]
1:50:34 - No. 18 Aria: Vedrai, carino [Z]
1:54:06 - Recitativo: Di molte faci il lume [DE, L]
1:54:39 - No. 19 Sestetto: Sola sola in buio loco [Donna Anna, DE, Don Ottavio, L]
1:57:31 - Sestetto (cont'd): Ferma, briccone [DA, DE, L, Z, DO, L, M]
2:00:00 - Sestetto (cont'd): Mille torbidi pensieri [do.]
2:02:31 - Recitativo: Dunque quello sei tu [DE, Z, DO, L, M]
2:02:53 - No. 20 Aria: Ah pietà, signori miei [L]
2:04:51 - Recitativo: Ferma, perfido, ferma [DE, Z, DO, M]
2:05:34 - No. 21 Aria: Il mio tesoro intanto [DO]
2:09:44 - No. 21b Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria: In quali eccessi - Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata [DE]
2:15:40 - Recitativo: Ah ah ah ah, questa è buona [DG, L, Il Commendatore]
2:20:35 - No. 22 Duetto: O statua gentilissima [DG, L]
2:24:12 - Recitativo: Calmatevi, idol mio [DA, DO]
2:25:00 - No. 23 Recitativo accompagnato: Crudele! - Non mi dir, bell'idol mio [DA]
2:31:03 - Recitativo: Ah, si segua il suo passo [DO]
2:31:25 - No. 24 Finale: Già la mensa è preparata [DG, L]
2:35:49 - L'ultima prova [DE, DG, L]
2:37:59 - Che grido è questo mai? [DG, L]
2:39:14 - Don Giovanni, a cenar teco [Il Commendatore, DG, L]
2:44:42 - Da qual tremore insolito... [DG, Coro, L]
2:45:46 - Ah! dov'è il perfido? [DO, DA, DE, Z, M, L]
2:47:22 - Or che tutti, o mio tesoro [DO, DA, DE, Z, M, L]
2:49:39 - Resti dunque quel birbon [Z, M, L]
2:50:13 - Questo è il fin di chi fa mal! [Tutti]
Don Giovanni confronts the stone guest in a painting by Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard, ca 1830–35
Don Giovanni, K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, namely Don Giovanni or The Libertine Punished) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It is based on the legends of Don Juan, a fictional libertine and seducer. It was premiered by the Prague Italian opera at the National Theater (of Bohemia), now called the Estates Theatre, on 29 October 1787.
Don Giovanni, a young, arrogant, and sexually promiscuous nobleman, abuses and outrages everyone else in the cast until he encounters something he cannot kill, beat up, dodge, or outwit.
The overture begins with a thundering D minor cadence, followed by a short misterioso sequence which leads into a light-hearted D major allegro.
Scene 1 – The garden of the Commendatore
Leporello, Don Giovanni's servant, grumbles about his demanding master and daydreams about being free of him ("Notte e giorno faticar" – "Night and day I slave away"). He is keeping watch while Don Giovanni is in the Commendatore's house attempting to seduce or rape the Commendatore's daughter, Donna Anna. Don Giovanni enters the garden from inside the house, pursued by Donna Anna. Don Giovanni is masked and Donna Anna tries to hold him and to unmask him, shouting for help. (Trio: "Non sperar, se non m'uccidi, Ch'io ti lasci fuggir mai!" – "Do not hope, unless you kill me, that I shall ever let you run away!"). He breaks free and she runs off as the Commendatore enters the garden. The Commendatore blocks Don Giovanni's path and forces him to fight a duel. Don Giovanni kills the Commendatore with his sword and escapes with Leporello. Donna Anna, returning with her fiancé, Don Ottavio, is horrified to see her father lying dead in a pool of his own blood. She makes Don Ottavio swear vengeance against the unknown murderer. (Duet: "Ah, vendicar, se il puoi, giura quel sangue ognor!" – "Ah, swear to avenge that blood if you can!").
Scene 2 – A public square outside Don Giovanni's palace
Leporello tells Don Giovanni that he (Giovanni) is leading a rotten life; Don Giovanni reacts angrily. They hear a woman (Donna Elvira) singing of having been abandoned by her lover, on whom she is seeking revenge ("Ah, chi mi dice mai" – "Ah, who could ever tell me"). Don Giovanni starts to flirt with her, but it turns out he is the former lover she is seeking. The two recognize each other and she reproaches him bitterly. He shoves Leporello forward, ordering him to tell Donna Elvira the truth about him, and then hurries away.
Leporello tells Donna Elvira that Don Giovanni is not worth her feelings for him. He is unfaithful to everyone; his conquests include 640 women and girls in Italy, 231 in Germany, 100 in France, 91 in Turkey, but in Spain, 1,003 ("Madamina, il catalogo è questo" – "My dear lady, this is the catalogue"). In a frequently cut recitative, Donna Elvira vows vengeance.
Scene 3 – The open country
A marriage procession with Masetto and Zerlina enters. Don Giovanni and Leporello arrive soon after. Don Giovanni is immediately attracted to Zerlina, and he attempts to remove the jealous Masetto by offering to host a wedding celebration at his castle. On realizing that Don Giovanni means to remain behind with Zerlina, Masetto becomes angry ("Ho capito! Signor, sì" – "I understand! Yes, my lord!") but is forced to leave. Don Giovanni and Zerlina are soon alone and he immediately begins his seductive arts (Duet: "Là ci darem la mano" – "There we will entwine our hands").
Donna Elvira arrives and thwarts the seduction ("Ah, fuggi il traditor" – "Flee from the traitor!"). She leaves with Zerlina. Don Ottavio and Donna Anna enter, plotting vengeance on the still unknown murderer of Donna Anna's father. Donna Anna, unaware that she is speaking to her attacker, pleads for Don Giovanni's help. Don Giovanni, relieved that he is unrecognised, readily promises it, and asks who has disturbed her peace. Before she can answer, Donna Elvira returns and tells Donna Anna and Don Ottavio that Don Giovanni is a false-hearted seducer. Don Giovanni tries to convince Don Ottavio and Donna Anna that Donna Elvira is insane (Quartet: "Non ti fidar, o misera" – "Don't trust him, oh sad one"). As Don Giovanni leaves, Donna Anna suddenly recognizes him as her father's murderer and tells Don Ottavio the story of his intrusion, claiming that she was deceived at first because she was expecting a night visit from Don Ottavio himself, but managed to fight Don Giovanni off after discovering the imposture (long recitative exchange between Donna Anna and Don Ottavio). She repeats her demand that he avenge her and points out that he will be avenging himself as well (aria: "Or sai chi l'onore Rapire a me volse" – "Now you know who wanted to rob me of my honour"). Don Ottavio, not yet convinced (Donna Anna having only recognised Don Giovanni's voice, not seen his face), resolves to keep an eye on his friend ("Dalla sua pace la mia dipende" – "On her peace my peace depends").
Leporello informs Don Giovanni that all the guests of the peasant wedding are in Don Giovanni's house and that he distracted Masetto from his jealousy, but that Zerlina, returning with Donna Elvira, made a scene and spoiled everything. However, Don Giovanni remains cheerful and tells Leporello to organize a party and invite every girl he can find. (Don Giovanni's "Champagne Aria": "Fin ch'han dal vino calda la testa" – "Till they are tipsy"). They hasten to his palace.
Scene 4 – A garden outside Don Giovanni's palace
Zerlina follows the jealous Masetto and tries to pacify him ("Batti, batti o bel Masetto" – "Beat, O beat me, handsome Masetto"), but just as she manages to persuade him of her innocence, Don Giovanni's voice from offstage startles and frightens her. Masetto hides, resolving to see for himself what Zerlina will do when Don Giovanni arrives. Zerlina tries to hide from Don Giovanni, but he finds her and attempts to continue the seduction, until he stumbles upon Masetto's hiding place. Confused but quickly recovering, Don Giovanni reproaches Masetto for leaving Zerlina alone, and returns her temporarily to him. Don Giovanni then leads both offstage to his ballroom. Three masked guests – the disguised Don Ottavio, Donna Anna, and Donna Elvira – enter the garden. From a balcony, Leporello invites them to his master's party. They accept the invitation and Leporello leaves the balcony. Alone, Don Ottavio and Donna Anna pray for protection, Donna Elvira for vengeance (Trio: "Protegga il giusto cielo" – "May the just heavens protect us").
Scene 5 – Don Giovanni's ballroom
As the merriment, featuring three separate chamber orchestras on stage, proceeds, Leporello distracts Masetto by dancing with him, while Don Giovanni leads Zerlina offstage to a private room and tries to assault her. When Zerlina screams for help, Don Giovanni drags Leporello onstage from the room, accuses Leporello of assaulting Zerlina himself, and threatens to kill him. The others are not fooled. Don Ottavio produces a pistol and points it at Don Giovanni, and the three guests unmask and declare that they know all. But despite being denounced and menaced from all sides, Don Giovanni remains calm and escapes – for the moment.
Scene 1 – Outside Donna Elvira's house
Leporello threatens to leave Don Giovanni, but his master calms him with a peace offering of money (Duet: "Eh via buffone" – "Go on, fool"). Wanting to seduce Donna Elvira's maid, and believing that she will trust him better if he appears in lower-class clothes, Don Giovanni orders Leporello to exchange cloak and hat with him. Donna Elvira comes to her window (Trio: "Ah taci, ingiusto core" – "Ah, be quiet unjust heart"). Seeing an opportunity for a game, Don Giovanni hides and sends Leporello out in the open wearing Don Giovanni's cloak and hat. From his hiding place Don Giovanni sings a promise of repentance, expressing a desire to return to her and threatening to kill himself if she does not take him back, while Leporello poses as Don Giovanni and tries to keep from laughing. Donna Elvira is convinced and descends to the street. Leporello, continuing to pose as Don Giovanni, leads her away to keep her occupied while Don Giovanni serenades her maid with his mandolin. ("Deh vieni alla finestra" – "Ah, come to the window").
Before Don Giovanni can complete his seduction of the maid, Masetto and his friends arrive, looking for Don Giovanni in order to kill him. Don Giovanni poses as Leporello (whose clothes he is still wearing) and joins the posse, pretending that he also hates Don Giovanni. After cunningly dispersing Masetto's friends (Don Giovanni aria: "Metà di voi qua vadano" – "Half of you go this way. the others, go that way"), Don Giovanni takes Masetto's weapons away, beats him up, and runs off, laughing. Zerlina arrives and consoles the bruised and battered Masetto ("Vedrai carino" – "You'll see, dear one").
Scene 2 – A dark courtyard
Leporello abandons Donna Elvira. (Sextet: "Sola, sola in buio loco" – "All alone in this dark place"). As he tries to escape, he bumps into Don Ottavio and Donna Anna. Zerlina and Masetto also enter the scene. Everyone mistakes Leporello for Don Giovanni, whose clothes he is still wearing. They surround Leporello and threaten to kill him. Donna Elvira tries to protect the man who she thinks is Don Giovanni, claiming that he is her husband and begging the others to spare him. Leporello takes off Don Giovanni's cloak and reveals his true identity. He begs for mercy and, seeing an opportunity, runs off (Leporello aria: "Ah pietà signori miei" – "Ah, have mercy, my lords"). Don Ottavio is now convinced that Don Giovanni is the one who murdered Donna Anna's father (the deceased Commendatore). He swears vengeance ("Il mio tesoro" – "My treasure" – though in the Vienna version this was cut).
In the Vienna production of the opera, Zerlina follows Leporello and recaptures him. Threatening him with a razor, she ties him to a stool. He attempts to sweet-talk her out of hurting him. (Duet: "Per queste tue manine" – "For these hands of yours"). Zerlina goes to find Masetto and the others; Leporello escapes again before she returns. This scene, marked by low comedy, is rarely performed today. Also in the Vienna production, Donna Elvira is still furious at Don Giovanni for betraying her, but she also feels sorry for him. ("Mi tradì quell'alma ingrata" – "That ungrateful wretch betrayed me").
Scene 3 – A graveyard with the statue of the Commendatore.
Don Giovanni wanders into a graveyard. Leporello happens along and the two are reunited. Leporello tells Don Giovanni of his brush with danger, and Don Giovanni laughingly taunts him, saying that he took advantage of his disguise as Leporello by trying to seduce one of Leporello's girlfriends. The voice of the statue interrupts and warns Don Giovanni that his laughter will not last beyond sunrise. At the command of his master, Leporello reads the inscription upon the statue's base: "Here am I waiting for revenge against the scoundrel who killed me" (Dell'empio che mi trasse al passo estremo qui attendo la vendetta). The servant trembles, but Don Giovanni scornfully orders him to invite the statue to dinner, and threatens to kill him if he does not. Leporello makes several attempts to invite the statue to dinner but is too frightened to complete the invitation (Duet: "O, statua gentilissima" – "Oh most noble statue"). Don Giovanni invites the statue to dinner himself. Much to his surprise, the statue nods its head and responds affirmatively.
Scene 4 – Donna Anna's room
Don Ottavio pressures Donna Anna to marry him, but she thinks it inappropriate so soon after her father's death. He accuses her of being cruel, and she assures him that she loves him, and is faithful ("Non mi dir" – "Tell me not").
Scene 5 – Don Giovanni's chambers
Don Giovanni revels in the luxury of a great meal, served by Leporello, and musical entertainment during which the orchestra plays music from popular (at the time) late-18th-century operas: "O quanto in sì bel giubilo" from Vicente Martín y Soler's Una cosa rara (1786), "Come un agnello" from Giuseppe Sarti's Fra i due litiganti il terzo gode (1782) and finally, "Non più andrai" from Mozart's own The Marriage of Figaro (1786). Leporello complains that he is sick and tired of hearing Mozart's aria everywhere all the time. (Finale "Già la mensa preparata" – "Already the table is prepared"). Donna Elvira enters, saying that she no longer feels resentment against Don Giovanni, only pity for him. ("L'ultima prova dell'amor mio" – "The final proof of my love"). Don Giovanni, surprised, asks what she wants, and she begs him to change his life. Don Giovanni taunts her and then turns away, praising wine and women as the "support and glory of humankind" (sostegno e gloria d'umanità). Hurt and angry, Donna Elvira gives up and leaves. Offstage, she screams in sudden terror. Don Giovanni orders Leporello to see what has upset her; when he does, he also cries out, and runs back into the room, stammering that the statue has appeared as promised. An ominous knocking sounds at the door. Leporello, paralyzed by fear, cannot answer it, so Don Giovanni opens it himself, revealing the statue of the Commendatore. With the rhythmic chords of the overture, now reharmonized with diabolic diminished sevenths accompanying the Commendatore ("Don Giovanni! A cenar teco m'invitasti" – "Don Giovanni! You invited me to dine with you"), the statue offers a last chance to repent, but Don Giovanni adamantly refuses. The statue disappears and Don Giovanni cries out in pain and terror as he is surrounded by a chorus of demons, who carry him down to Hell. Leporello, watching from under the table, also cries out in fear.
Donna Anna, Don Ottavio, Donna Elvira, Zerlina, and Masetto arrive, searching for the villain. They find instead Leporello hiding under the table, shaken by the supernatural horror he has witnessed. He assures them that no one will ever see Don Giovanni again. The remaining characters announce their plans for the future: Donna Anna and Don Ottavio will marry when Donna Anna's year of mourning is over; Donna Elvira will withdraw from society for the rest of her life; Zerlina and Masetto will finally go home for dinner; and Leporello will go to the tavern to find a better master.
The concluding ensemble delivers the moral of the opera – "Such is the end of the evildoer: the death of a sinner always reflects his life" ("Questo è il fin di chi fa mal, e de' perfidi la morte alla vita è sempre ugual"). As mentioned above, the final ensemble was customarily omitted from productions for over a century beginning with the original run in Prague, but it started to be performed again frequently in the 20th century and is now is usually included in productions of the opera. The return to D major and the innocent simplicity of the last few bars conclude the opera.
KV 588 - Cosi fan tutte
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Terzetto I,1 (Ferrando, Guglielmo, Alfonso) La mia Dorabella (3:50)
- Terzetto I,1 (Alfonso, Ferrando, Guglielmo) È la fede delle femmine (5:36)
- Terzetto I,1 (Ferrando, Alfonso, Guglielmo) Una bella serenata (6:45)
- Duetto I,2 (Fiordiligi, Dorabella) Ah guarda, sorella (9:06)
- Aria I,2 (Alfonso) Vorrei dir, e cor non ho (12:45)
- Quintetto I,2 Sento, o Dio, che questo piede (13:24)
- Duettino I,2 (Ferrando, Guglielmo) Al fato dan legge (16:58)
- Coro I,2 Bella vita militar! (18:12)
- Quintetto I,2 Di scrivermi ogni giorno (19:39)
- Terzetto I,2 (Fiordiligi, Dorabella, Alfonso) Soave sia il vento (21:52)
- Aria I,3 (Dorabella) Smanie implacabili (24:25)
- Aria I,3 (Despina) In uomini, in soldati! (26:24)
- Sestetto I,3 Alla bella Despinetta (28:45)
- Aria I,3 (Fiordiligi) Come scoglio (33:12)
- Aria I,3 (Guglielmo) Rivolgete a voi lo sguardo (37:40)
- Aria I,3 (Guglielmo) Non siate ritrosi (43:01)
- Terzetto I,3 (Alfonso, Guglielmo, Ferrando) E voi ridete (44:30)
- Aria I,3 (Ferrando) Un'aura amorosa (45:22)
- Finale I,4 Ah, che tutta in un momento (49:47)
- Finale I,4 Eccovi il medico, signore belle (56:47)
- Finale I,4 Dammi un bacio, o mio tesoro (1:02:23)
- Aria II,1 (Despina) Una donna a quindici anni (1:05:31)
- Duetto II,1 (Dorabella, Fiordiligi) Prenderò quel brunettino (1:08:20)
- Duetto e coro II,2 (Ferrando, Guglielmo) Secondate, aurette amiche (1:10:58)
- Quartetto II,2 La mano a me date (1:13:31)
- Duetto II,2 (Guglielmo, Dorabella) Il core vi dono (1:15:57)
- Aria II,2 (Ferrando) Ah, lo veggio (1:20:06)
- Rondo II,2 (Fiordiligi) Per pietà, ben mio (1:23:42)
- Aria II,2 (Guglielmo) Donne mie, la fate a tanti, a tanti (1:30:28)
- Cavatina II,2 (Ferrando) Tradito, schernito (1:33:20)
- Aria II,3 (Dorabella) È amore un ladroncello (1:35:11)
- Duetto II,3 (Fiordiligi, Ferrando) Fra gli amplessi in pochi istanti (1:38:07)
- Arioso II,3 (Alfonso) Tutti accusan le donne (1:43:24)
- Finale II,4 Fate presto, o cari amici (1:44:20)
- Finale II,4 Benedetti i doppi coniugi (1:45:52)
- Finale II,4 E nel tuo, nel mio bicchiero (1:49:41)
- Finale II,4 Sani e salvi agli amplessi amorosi (1:54:27)
Cosi fan tutte
Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti (Italian: [koˈzi fan ˈtutte osˈsiːa la ˈskwɔːla deʎʎ aˈmanti]; Thus Do They All, or The School for Lovers), K. 588, is an Italian-language opera buffa in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart first performed on 26 January 1790 at the Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria. The libretto was written by Lorenzo Da Ponte who also wrote Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni.
Mozart and Da Ponte use the theme of "fiancée swapping", which dates back to the 13th century; notable earlier versions are found in Boccaccio's Decameron and Shakespeare's play Cymbeline. Elements from Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew are also present. Furthermore, it incorporates elements of the myth of Procris as found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, vii.
Time: the 18th century
Scene 1: A coffeehouse
In a cafe, Ferrando and Guglielmo (two officers) express certainty that their fiancées (Dorabella and Fiordiligi, respectively) will be eternally faithful. Don Alfonso expresses skepticism and claims that there is no such thing as a faithful woman. He lays a wager with the two officers, claiming he can prove in a day's time that those two, like all women, are fickle. The wager is accepted: the two officers will pretend to have been called off to war; soon thereafter they will return in disguise and each attempt to seduce the other's lover. The scene shifts to the two women, who are praising their men (duet: Ah guarda sorella—"Ah look sister"). Alfonso arrives to announce the bad news: the officers have been called off to war. Ferrando and Guglielmo arrive, brokenhearted, and bid farewell (quintet: Sento, o Dio, che questo piede è restio—"I feel, oh God, that my foot is reluctant"). As the boat with the men sails off to sea, Alfonso and the sisters wish them safe travel (trio: Soave sia il vento—"May the wind be gentle"). Alfonso, left alone, gloatingly predicts that the women (like all women) will prove unfaithful (arioso: Oh, poverini, per femmina giocare cento zecchini?—"Oh, poor little ones, to wager 100 sequins on a woman").
Scene 2: A room in the sisters' home
Despina, the maid, arrives and asks what is wrong. Dorabella bemoans the torment of having been left alone (aria: Smanie implacabili—"Torments implacable"). Despina mocks the sisters, advising them to take new lovers while their betrotheds are away (aria: In uomini, in soldati, sperare fedeltà?—"In men, in soldiers, you hope for faithfulness?"). After they leave, Alfonso arrives. He fears Despina will recognize the men through their disguises, so he bribes her into helping him to win the bet. The two men then arrive, dressed as mustachioed Albanians (sextet: Alla bella Despinetta—"Meet the pretty Despinetta"). The sisters enter and are alarmed by the presence of strange men in their home. The "Albanians" tell the sisters that they were led by love to them (the sisters). However, the sisters refuse to give in. Fiordiligi asks the "Albanians" to leave and pledges to remain faithful (aria: Come scoglio—"Like a rock"). The "Albanians" continue the attempt to win over the sisters' hearts, Guglielmo going so far as to point out all of his manly attributes (aria: Non siate ritrosi—"Don't be shy"), but to no avail. Ferrando, left alone and sensing victory, praises his love (aria: Un'aura amorosa—"A loving breath").
Scene 3: A garden
The sisters are still pining. Despina has asked Don Alfonso to let her take over the seduction plan. Suddenly, the "Albanians" burst in the scene and threaten to poison themselves if they are not allowed the chance to woo the sisters. As Alfonso tries to calm them, they drink the "poison" and pretend to pass out. Soon thereafter, a "doctor" (Despina in disguise) arrives on the scene and, using magnet therapy, is able to revive the "Albanians". The men, pretending to hallucinate, demand a kiss from Dorabella and Fiordiligi (whom the "Albanians" call goddesses) who stand before them. The sisters refuse, even as Alfonso and the doctor (Despina) urge them to acquiesce.
Scene 1: The sisters' bedroom
Despina urges them to succumb to the "Albanians"' overtures (aria: Una donna a quindici anni—"A fifteen year old woman"). After she leaves, Dorabella confesses to Fiordiligi that she is tempted, and the two agree that a mere flirtation will do no harm and will help them pass the time while they wait for their lovers to return (duet: Prenderò quel brunettino"—"I will take the dark one").
Scene 2: The garden
Dorabella and the disguised Guglielmo pair off, as do the other two. The conversation is haltingly uncomfortable, and Ferrando departs with Fiordiligi. Now alone, Guglielmo attempts to woo Dorabella. She does not resist strongly, and soon she has given him a medallion (with Ferrando's portrait inside) in exchange for a heart-shaped locket (duet: Il core vi dono—"I give you my heart"). Ferrando is less successful with Fiordiligi (Ferrando's aria: Ah, lo veggio—"Ah, I see it" and Fiordiligi's aria: Per pietà, ben mio, perdona—"Please, my beloved, forgive"), so he is enraged when he later finds out from Guglielmo that the medallion with his portrait has been so quickly given away to a new lover. Guglielmo at first sympathises with Ferrando (aria: Donne mie, la fate a tanti—"My ladies, you do it to so many"), but then gloats, because his betrothed is faithful.
Scene 3: The sisters' room
Dorabella admits her indiscretion to Fiordiligi (È amore un ladroncello—"Love is a little thief"). Fiordiligi, upset by this development, decides to go to the army and find her betrothed. Before she can leave, though, Ferrando arrives and continues his attempted seduction. Fiordiligi finally succumbs and falls into his arms (duet: Fra gli amplessi—"In the embraces"). Guglielmo is distraught while Ferrando turns Guglielmo's earlier gloating back on him. Alfonso, winner of the wager, tells the men to forgive their fiancées. After all: Così fan tutte—"All women are like that".
The scene begins as a double wedding for the sisters and their "Albanian" grooms. Despina, in disguise as a notary, presents the marriage contract, which all sign. Directly thereafter, military music is heard in the distance, indicating the return of the officers. Alfonso confirms the sisters' fears: Ferrando and Guglielmo are on their way to the house. The "Albanians" hurry off to hide (actually, to change out of their disguises). They return as the officers, professing their love. Alfonso drops the marriage contract in front of the officers, and, when they read it, they become enraged. They then depart and return moments later, half in Albanian disguise, half as officers. Despina has been revealed to be the notary, and the sisters realize they have been duped. All is ultimately forgiven, as the entire group praises the ability to accept life's unavoidable good times and bad times.
KV 620 - Die Zauberflöte (The magic flute)
Playbill for the premiere, 30 September 1791.
- Ouvertüre (0:00)
- Introduktion I,1 (Tamino, Damen) Zu Hilfe! Zu Hilfe! (6:23)
- Arie I,1 (Papageno) Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja (12:16)
- Arie I,1 (Tamino) Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön (14:07)
- Rezitativ und Arie I,1 (Königin) O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn! (17:55)
- Quintett I,1 (Papageno, Tamino, Damen) Hm! hm! hm! (22:22)
- Terzett I,2 (Monostatos, Pamina, Papageno) Du feines Täubchen, nur herein! (27:48)
- Duett I,2 (Pamina, Papageno) Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen (29:41)
- Finale I,3 Zum Ziele führt dich diese Bahn (32:27)
- Finale I,3 Die Weisheitslehre dieser Knaben (34:01)
- Finale I,3 Wo willst du, kühner Fremdling, hin (36:12)
- Finale I,3 Wie stark ist nicht dein Zauberton (42:59)
- Finale I,3 Schnelle Füße, rascher Mut (45:43)
- Finale I,3 Es lebe Sarastro! Sarastro soll leben (48:46)
- Finale I,3 Herr, ich bin zwar Verbrecherin (50:23)
- Marsch der Priester II,1 (56:25)
- Arie mit Chor II,1 (Sarastro) O Isis und Osiris (58:49)
- Duett II,2 (Priester) Bewahret euch vor Weibertücken (1:01:30)
- Quintett II,2 (Damen, Papageno, Tamino) Wie, Wie, Wie (1:02:24)
- Arie II,3 (Monostatos) Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden (1:05:44)
- Arie II,3 (Königin der Nacht) Der Hölle Rache (1:07:04)
- Arie II,3 (Sarastro) In diesen heil'gen Hallen (1:09:43)
- Terzett II,4 (Knaben) Seid uns zum zweitenmal wilkommen (1:13:26)
- Arie II,4 (Pamina) Ach, ich fühl's, es ist verchwunden (1:14:59)
- Chor II,5 (Priester) O Isis und Osiris, welche Wonne! (1:18:24)
- Terzett II,5 (Pamina, Sarastro, Tamino) Soll ich dich, Teurer (1:20:57)
- Arie II,6 (Papageno) Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen (1:23:51)
- Finale II,7 Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden (1:27:30)
- Finale II,8 Der, welcher wandert diese Straße (1:33:15)
- Finale II,8 Tamino mein! O welch in Glück! (1:37:55)
- Finale II,8 Wir wandelten durch Feuesgluten (1:41:32)
- Finale II,9 Papagena! Papagena! Papagena! (1:45:03)
- Finale II,9 Pa-Pa-Pagena! (1:50:21)
- Finale II,10 Nur stille, stille, stille (1:52:49)
- Finale II,10 Die Strahlen der Sonne (1:54:49)
The arrival of the Queen of the Night. Stage set by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for an 1815 production
Die Zauberflöte (The magic flute)
The Magic Flute (German: Die Zauberflöte), K. 620, is an opera in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. The work is in the form of a Singspiel, a popular form that included both singing and spoken dialogue. The work premiered on 30 September 1791 at Schikaneder's theatre, the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna, just two months before the composer's premature death.
The opera begins with the overture, which Mozart composed last.
Scene 1: A rough, rocky landscape
Tamino, a handsome prince lost in a distant land, is pursued by a serpent and asks the gods to save him (aria: "Zu Hilfe! Zu Hilfe!" segued into trio: "Stirb, Ungeheuer, durch uns’re Macht!"). He faints, and three ladies, attendants of the Queen of the Night, appear and kill the serpent. They find the unconscious prince extremely attractive, and each of them tries to convince the other two to leave. After arguing, they reluctantly decide to leave together.
Tamino wakes up, and is surprised to find himself still alive. Papageno enters dressed as a bird. He describes his life as a bird-catcher, complaining he has no wife or girlfriend (aria: "Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja"). Tamino introduces himself to Papageno, thinking Papageno killed the serpent. Papageno happily takes the credit – claiming he strangled it with his bare hands. The three ladies suddenly reappear and instead of giving him wine, cake and figs, they give him water, a stone and place a padlock over his mouth as a warning not to lie. They give Tamino a portrait of the Queen of the Night's daughter Pamina, with whom Tamino falls instantly in love (aria: "Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön" / This image is enchantingly beautiful).
The ladies return and tell Tamino that Pamina has been captured by Sarastro, a supposedly evil sorcerer. Tamino vows to rescue Pamina. The Queen of the Night appears and promises Tamino that Pamina will be his if he rescues her from Sarastro (Recitative and aria: "O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn" / Oh, tremble not, my dear son!). The Queen leaves and the ladies remove the padlock from Papageno's mouth with a warning not to lie any more. They give Tamino a magic flute which has the power to change sorrow into joy. They tell Papageno to go with Tamino, and give him (Papageno) magic bells for protection. The ladies introduce three child-spirits, who will guide Tamino and Papageno to Sarastro's temple. Together Tamino and Papageno set forth (Quintet: "Hm! Hm! Hm! Hm!").
Scene 2: A room in Sarastro's palace
Pamina is dragged in by Sarastro's slaves, apparently having tried to escape. Monostatos, a blackamoor and chief of the slaves, orders the slaves to chain her and leave him alone with her. Papageno, sent ahead by Tamino to help find Pamina, enters (Trio: "Du feines Täubchen, nur herein!"). Monostatos and Papageno are each terrified by the other's strange appearance and both flee. Papageno returns and announces to Pamina that her mother has sent Tamino to save her. Pamina rejoices to hear that Tamino is in love with her. She offers sympathy and hope to Papageno, who longs for a wife. Together they reflect on the joys and sacred duties of marital love (duet: "Bei Männern welche Liebe fühlen").
Finale. Scene 3: A grove in front of a temple
The three child-spirits lead Tamino to Sarastro's temple, promising that if he remains patient, wise and steadfast, he will succeed in rescuing Pamina (Quartet: "Zum Ziele führt dich diese Bahn"). Tamino approaches the left-hand entrance and is denied access by voices from within. The same happens when he goes to the entrance on the right. But from the entrance in the middle, an old priest appears and lets Tamino in. (The old priest is referred to as "The Speaker" in the libretto, but his role is a singing role.) He tells Tamino that Sarastro is benevolent, not evil, and that he should not trust the Queen of the Night. He promises that Tamino's confusion will be lifted when Tamino approaches the temple as a friend. Tamino plays his magic flute. Animals appear and dance, enraptured, to his music. Tamino hears Papageno's pipes sounding offstage, and hurries off to find him (aria: "Wie stark ist nicht dein Zauberton").
Papageno and Pamina enter, searching for Tamino (trio: "Schnelle Füße, rascher Mut"). They are recaptured by Monostatos and his slaves. Papageno plays his magic bells, and Monostatos and his slaves begin to dance, and exit the stage, still dancing, mesmerised by the beauty of the music (chorus: "Das klinget so herrlich"). Papageno and Pamina hear the sound of Sarastro's retinue approaching. Papageno is frightened and asks Pamina what they should say. She answers that they must tell the truth. Sarastro enters, with a crowd of followers.
Pamina falls at Sarastro's feet and confesses that she tried to escape because Monostatos had forced his attentions on her. Sarastro receives her kindly and assures her that he wishes only for her happiness. But he refuses to return her to her mother, whom he describes as a proud, headstrong woman, and a bad influence on those around her. Pamina, he says, must be guided by a man.
Monostatos brings in Tamino. The two lovers see one another for the first time and embrace, causing indignation among Sarastro's followers. Monostatos tells Sarastro that he caught Papageno and Pamina trying to escape, and demands a reward. Sarastro, however, punishes Monostatos for his lustful behaviour toward Pamina, and sends him away. He announces that Tamino must undergo trials of wisdom in order to become worthy as Pamina's husband. The priests declare that virtue and righteousness will sanctify life and make mortals like gods ("Wenn Tugend und Gerechtigkeit").
Scene 1: A grove of palms
The council of priests of Isis and Osiris, headed by Sarastro, enters to the sound of a solemn march. Sarastro tells the priests that Tamino is ready to undergo the ordeals that will lead to enlightenment. He invokes the gods Isis and Osiris, asking them to protect Tamino and Pamina (Aria and chorus: "O Isis und Osiris").
Scene 2: The courtyard of the Temple of Ordeal
Tamino and Papageno are led in by two priests for the first trial. The two priests advise Tamino and Papageno of the dangers ahead of them, warn them of women's wiles and swear them to silence (Duet: "Bewahret euch von Weibertücken"). The three ladies appear and try to frighten Tamino and Papageno into speaking. (Quintet: "Wie, wie, wie") Papageno cannot resist answering the ladies, but Tamino remains aloof, angrily instructing Papageno not to listen to the ladies' threats and to keep quiet. Seeing that Tamino will not speak to them, the ladies withdraw in confusion.
Scene 3: A garden
Pamina is asleep. Monostatos approaches and gazes upon her with rapture. (Aria: "Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden") He is about to kiss the sleeping Pamina, when the Queen of the Night appears. She gives Pamina a dagger, ordering her to kill Sarastro with it and threatening to disown her if she does not. (Aria: "Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen"). She leaves. Monostatos returns and tries to force Pamina's love by threatening to reveal the Queen's plot, but Sarastro enters and drives him off. Pamina begs Sarastro to forgive her mother and he reassures her that revenge and cruelty have no place in his domain (Aria: "In diesen heil'gen Hallen").
Scene 4: A hall in the Temple of Ordeal
Tamino and Papageno are led in by priests, who remind them that they must remain silent. Papageno complains of thirst. An old woman enters and offers Papageno a cup of water. He drinks and teasingly asks whether she has a boyfriend. She replies that she does and that his name is Papageno. She disappears as Papageno asks for her name, and the three child-spirits bring in food, the magic flute, and the bells, sent from Sarastro. Tamino begins to play the flute, which summons Pamina. She tries to speak with him, but Tamino, bound by his vow of silence, cannot answer her, and Pamina begins to believe that he no longer loves her. (Aria: "Ach, ich fühl's, es ist verschwunden") She leaves in despair.
Scene 5: The pyramids
The priests celebrate Tamino's successes so far, and pray that he will succeed and become worthy of their order (Chorus: "O Isis und Osiris"). Pamina is brought in and Sarastro instructs Pamina and Tamino to bid each other farewell before the greater trials ahead, alarming them by describing it as their "final farewell." (Trio: Sarastro, Pamina, Tamino – "Soll ich dich, Teurer, nicht mehr sehn?" Note: In order to preserve the continuity of Pamina's suicidal feelings, this trio is sometimes performed earlier in act 2, preceding or immediately following Sarastro's aria "O Isis und Osiris".) They exit and Papageno enters. The priests grant his request for a glass of wine and he expresses his desire for a wife. (Aria: "Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen"). The elderly woman reappears and warns him that unless he immediately promises to marry her, he will be imprisoned forever. When Papageno promises to love her faithfully (muttering that he will only do this until something better comes along), she is transformed into the young and pretty Papagena. Papageno rushes to embrace her, but the priests drive him back, telling him that he is not yet worthy of her.
Finale. Scene 6: A garden
The three child-spirits hail the dawn. They observe Pamina, who is contemplating suicide because she believes Tamino has abandoned her. The child-spirits restrain her and reassure her of Tamino's love. (Quartet: "Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden").
Scene change without interrupting the music, to Scene 7: Outside the Temple of Ordeal
Two men in armor lead in Tamino. They recite one of the formal creeds of Isis and Osiris, promising enlightenment to those who successfully overcome the fear of death ("Der, welcher wandert diese Strasse voll Beschwerden"). This recitation takes the musical form of a Baroque chorale prelude, to the tune of Martin Luther's hymn "Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein" (Oh God, look down from heaven). Tamino declares that he is ready to be tested. Pamina calls to him from offstage. The men in armour assure him that the trial by silence is over and he is free to speak with her. Pamina enters and declares her intention to undergo the remaining trials with him. She hands him the magic flute to help them through the trials ("Tamino mein, o welch ein Glück!"). Protected by the music of the magic flute, they pass unscathed through chambers of fire and water. Offstage, the priests hail their triumph and invite the couple to enter the temple.
Scene change without interrupting the music, to Scene 8: A garden with a tree
Papageno despairs at having lost Papagena and decides to hang himself (Aria/Quartet: "Papagena! Papagena! Papagena! Weibchen, Täubchen, meine Schöne") The three child-spirits appear and stop him. They advise him to play his magic bells to summon Papagena. She appears and, united, the happy couple stutter in astonishment and make bird-like courting sounds at each other. They plan their future and dream of the many children they will have together (Duet: "Pa … pa … pa ...").
Scene change without interrupting the music, to Scene 9: A rocky landscape outside the temple; night
The traitorous Monostatos appears with the Queen of the Night and her three ladies. They plot to destroy the temple ("Nur stille, stille") and the Queen confirms that she has promised her daughter Pamina to Monostatos. But before the conspirators can enter the temple, they are magically cast out into eternal night.
Scene change without interrupting the music, to Scene 10: The Temple of the Sun
Sarastro announces the sun's triumph over the night, and hails the dawn of a new era of wisdom and brotherhood.
KV 621 - La clemenza di Tito
- Sinfonia (0:00)
- Duetto I,1 (Sesto, Vitellia) Come ti piace imponi (4:47)
- Aria I,2 (Vitellia) Deh, se piacer mi vuoi (7:24)
- Duettino I,3 (Annio, Sesto) Deh, prendi un dolce amplesso (12:25)
- Marcia I,4 (13:12)
- Coro I,4. Serbate, oh Dei custodi (15:01)
- Aria I,4 (Tito) Del più sublime soglio (16:48)
- Duetto I,5 (Annio, Servilia) Ah perdona al primo affetto (19:38)
- Aria I,6 (Tito) Ah, se fosse intorno al trono (22:12)
- Aria I,8 (Sesto) Parto, ma tu ben mio (24:10)
- Terzetto I,9 (Vitellia, Annio, Publio) Vengo....aspettate...Sesto! (30:00)
- Finale I (Tutti) Deh, conversate, oh Dei (32:17)
- Aria II,1 (Annio) Tornia di Tito a lato (38:52)
- Terzetto II,4 (Sesto, Vitellia, Publio) Se al volto mai ti senti (41:04)
- Coro II,5 (Coro, Tito) Ah, grazie si rendano (45:39)
- Aria II,5 (Publio) Tardi s'avverde d'un tradimento (48:52)
- Aria II,7 (Annio) Tu fosti tradito (50:18)
- Terzetto II,9 (Sesto, Tito, Publio) Quello di Tito e il volto! (53:18)
- Rondo II,9 (Sesto) Deh , per questo istante solo (56:40)
- Aria II,11 (Tito) Se all'impero, amici dei (1:03:08)
- Aria II,12 (Servilia) S'altro che lacrime per lui non tenti (1:07:54)
- Rondo II,13 (Vitellia) Non più di fiori vaghe catene (1:10:09)
- Coro II,14. Che del ciel, che degli Dei (1:16:40)
- Finale II (Tutti) Tu e ver, m'assolvi, Augusto (1:18:40)
La clemenza di Tito
La clemenza di Tito (English: The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, is an opera seria in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, after Metastasio. It was started after the bulk of Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), the last opera that Mozart worked on, was already written. The work premiered on 6 September 1791 at the Estates Theatre in Prague.
Place and time: Rome, in the year 79.
Vitellia, daughter of the late emperor Vitellio (who had been deposed by Tito's father), wants revenge against Tito. She stirs up Tito's vacillating friend Sesto, who is in love with her, to act against him (duet Come ti piace, imponi). But when she hears word that Tito has sent Berenice of Cilicia, of whom she was jealous, back to Jerusalem, Vitellia tells Sesto to delay carrying out her wishes, hoping Tito will choose her (Vitellia) as his empress (aria Deh, se piacer mi vuoi).
Tito, however, decides to choose Sesto's sister Servilia to be his empress, and orders Annio (Sesto's friend) to bear the message to Servilia (aria Del più sublime soglio). Since Annio and Servilia, unbeknownst to Tito, are in love, this news is very unwelcome to both (duet Ah, perdona al primo affetto). Servilia decides to tell Tito the truth but also says that if Tito still insists on marrying her, she will obey. Tito thanks the gods for Servilia's truthfulness, and immediately forswears the idea of coming between her and Annio (aria Ah, se fosse intorno al trono).
In the meantime, however, Vitellia has heard the news about Tito's interest in Servilia and is again boiling with jealousy. She urges Sesto to assassinate Tito. He agrees, singing one of the opera's most famous arias (Parto, parto, ma tu, ben mio with basset clarinet obbligato). Almost as soon as he leaves, Annio and the guard Publio arrive to escort Vitellia to Tito, who has now chosen her as his empress. She is torn with feelings of guilt and worry over what she has sent Sesto to do.
Sesto, meanwhile, is at the Capitol wrestling with his conscience (recitativo Oh Dei, che smania è questa), as he and his accomplices go about to burn it down. The other characters (except Tito) enter severally and react with horror to the burning Capitol. Sesto reenters and announces that he saw Tito slain, but Vitellia stops him from incriminating himself as the assassin. The others lament Tito in a slow, mournful conclusion to act 1.
The act begins with Annio telling Sesto that Emperor Tito is in fact alive and has just been seen; in the smoke and chaos, Sesto mistook another for Tito. Sesto wants to leave Rome, but Annio persuades him not to (aria Torna di Tito a lato). Soon Publio arrives to arrest Sesto, bearing the news that it was one of Sesto's co-conspirators who dressed himself in Tito's robes and was stabbed, though not mortally, by Sesto. The Senate tries Sesto as Tito waits impatiently, sure that his friend will be exonerated; Publio expresses his doubts (aria Tardi s'avvede d'un tradimento) and leaves for the Senate. Annio begs Tito to show clemency towards his friend (aria Tu fosti tradito). Publio returns and announces that Sesto has been found guilty and an anguished Tito must sign Sesto's death sentence.
He decides to send for Sesto first, attempting to obtain further details about the plot. Sesto takes all the guilt on himself and says he deserves death (rondo Deh, per questo istante solo), so Tito tells him he shall have it and sends him away. But after an extended internal struggle, Tito tears up the execution warrant for Sesto. He determines that, if the world wishes to accuse him (Tito) of anything, it should charge him with showing too much mercy, rather than with having a vengeful heart (aria Se all'impero).
Vitellia at this time is torn by guilt, but Servilia warns her that tears alone will not save Sesto (aria S'altro che lagrime). Vitellia finally decides to confess all to Tito, giving up her hopes of empire (rondo Non più di fiori with basset horn obbligato). In the amphitheatre, the condemned (including Sesto) are waiting to be thrown to the wild beasts. Tito is about to show mercy, when Vitellia offers her confession as the instigator of Sesto's plot. Though shocked, the emperor includes her in the general clemency he offers (recitativo accompagnato Ma che giorno è mai questo?). The opera concludes with all the subjects praising the extreme generosity of Tito; he himself asks that the gods cut short his days, should he ever cease to care for the good of Rome.